Tuesday, November 21, 2023

Climate Show: Why China’s emissions may soon be falling 气候秀:为什么中国的排放量可能很快就会下降

Sky News on Youtube has the story.

Tom Heap hears about the green revolution that could soon put China’s emissions in decline, and sees how Portsmouth is tackling the issue of dirty air from shipping.

So-called Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from human activities intensify the (planet earth's) greenhouse effect. This contributes to climate change. Carbon dioxide (CO2), from burning fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas, is one of the most important factors in causing climate change. The largest emitters are China followed by the United States. The United States has higher emissions per capita. The main producers fueling the emissions globally are large oil and gas companies. Emissions from human activities have increased atmospheric carbon dioxide by about 50% over pre-industrial levels. The growing levels of emissions have varied, but have been consistent among all greenhouse gases. Emissions in the 2010s averaged 56 billion tons a year, higher than any decade before. Indeed, total cumulative emissions from 1870 to 2017 were 425±20 GtC (1539 GtCO2) from fossil fuels and industry, and 180±60 GtC (660 GtCO2) from land use change. Land-use change, such as deforestation, caused really about 31% of cumulative emissions over 1870-2017, coal 32%, oil 25%, and gas 10%.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is really the main greenhouse gas resulting from human activities. It accounts for more than half of warming. Methane (CH4) emissions have almost the same short-term impact. Nitrous oxide (N2O) and fluorinated gases (F-gases) play a lesser role in comparison.

Electricity generation, heat and transport are major emitters; overall energy is responsible for around 73% of emissions. Deforestation and other changes in land use also emit carbon dioxide and methane. The largest source of anthropogenic methane emissions is agriculture, closely followed by gas venting and fugitive emissions from the fossil-fuel industry. The largest agricultural methane source is livestock. Agricultural soils emit nitrous oxide partly due to fertilizers. Similarly, fluorinated gases from refrigerants play an outsized role in total human emissions.

The current CO2-equivalent emission rates averaging 6.6 tonnes per person per year, are well over twice the estimated rate 2.3 tons required to stay within the 2030 Paris Agreement increase of 1.5 °C (2.7 °F) over pre-industrial levels. Annual per capita emissions in the industrialized countries are typically as much as ten times the average in developing countries.

The important carbon footprint (or greenhouse gas footprint) serves as an indicator to compare the amount of greenhouse gases emitted over the entire life cycle from the production of a good or service along the supply chain to its final consumption. Carbon accounting (or greenhouse gas accounting) is a framework of various methods to measure and track how much greenhouse gas an organization emits.

Chinese Translation:

YouTube 上的天空新闻报道了这个故事。

汤姆·希普 (Tom Heap) 听说了绿色革命可能很快就会减少中国的排放量,并了解朴茨茅斯如何解决航运带来的肮脏空气问题。

人类活动产生的所谓温室气体(GHG)排放加剧了(地球)温室效应。 这会导致气候变化。 燃烧煤炭、石油和天然气等化石燃料产生的二氧化碳 (CO2) 是导致气候变化的最重要因素之一。 最大的排放国是中国,其次是美国。 美国的人均排放量较高。 全球排放的主要生产者是大型石油和天然气公司。 人类活动的排放使大气中的二氧化碳比工业化前水平增加了约 50%。 所有温室气体的排放量增长水平各不相同,但保持一致。 2010 年代的平均排放量为每年 560 亿吨,高于之前任何十年。 事实上,从 1870 年到 2017 年,化石燃料和工业的累计排放总量为 425±20 GtC (1539 GtCO2),土地利用变化的累计排放量为 180±60 GtC (660 GtCO2)。 1870 年至 2017 年间,土地利用变化(例如森林砍伐)造成了约 31% 的累计排放量,煤炭占 32%,石油占 25%,天然气占 10%。

二氧化碳(CO2)实际上是人类活动产生的主要温室气体。 它占变暖的一半以上。 甲烷 (CH4) 排放具有几乎相同的短期影响。 相比之下,一氧化二氮 (N2O) 和氟化气体 (F 气体) 的作用较小。

发电、供热和运输是主要排放源; 总体能源排放量约占排放量的 73%。 森林砍伐和土地利用的其他变化也会排放二氧化碳和甲烷。 人为甲烷排放的最大来源是农业,紧随其后的是化石燃料工业的气体排放和无组织排放。 最大的农业甲烷来源是牲畜。 农业土壤排放一氧化二氮的部分原因是化肥。 同样,制冷剂中的氟化气体在人类总排放量中发挥着巨大作用。

目前每人每年平均二氧化碳当量排放量为 6.6 吨,远高于工业化前水平 2030 年巴黎协定所需排放量 2.3 吨的两倍多。 工业化国家的年人均排放量通常是发展中国家平均水平的十倍。

重要的碳足迹(或温室气体足迹)是比较从供应链上的商品或服务的生产到最终消费的整个生命周期中排放的温室气体量的指标。 碳核算(或温室气体核算)是衡量和跟踪组织排放多少温室气体的各种方法的框架。

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