Thursday, July 22, 2021

Treasures Of Chinese Cuisine 中華美食之寶


Nouns:

食品 food, foodstuff, grocery, provisions
食物 food, meat, eating, eatables
糧食 food, grain, commissariat, provision, foodstuff, cereals
食 food, eclipse, meal
糧 grain, food, provisions
餐 meal, food
飯 rice, meal, food, cooked rice, cuisine
膳食 meal, food
食糧 food, grain
營養品 food, nourishment, diet, sustenance
饌 food, comestible, meal, delicacy, chow, dainty
饋 food
粻 chow, comestible, food, meal, victual, white cooked rice
篹 chow, victual, comestible, dainty, delicate, food

This is an interesting character - Radical 饣 ("Eat", "Food")

饣 is used as a left Chinese radical. Its meaning is "food" or "eat." The productive phonetic is shí (shi2).

饣 is simplified from 食. The pictogram of the traditional form looks like an inverted mouth over a bowl of food (probably rice) on a stand. The current form is 人 + 良 but the lower part is more likely to be related to 皀 rather than to 艮.

In the standard Chinese Kangxi Dictionary, more than 400 characters are found under this radical. In combination with other characters, they certainly produce lots of food-related words.

早饭  zǎo fàn  breakfast 
吃晚饭  chī wǎn fàn  to have dinner 
饭馆  fàn guǎn  restaurant 
旅馆  lǚ guǎn  hotel 
我太饿了! wǒ tài è le  I am so hungry! 
他很馋。 tā hěn chán  He is gluttonous. 
月饼  yuè bǐng  moon cake
肉馅儿  ròu xiànr  meat filling 

A popular Chinese traditional dish is called 饺子  jiǎozi  dumplings.

Beijing duck 北京烤鴨

Emergency 緊急情況


Nouns:

急 emergency, urgency
事變 incident, event, emergency, the course of events
緊急事件 emergency
突然事件 emergency

More Words:

急忙 jímáng hastily
急躁 jízào irritable; irascible; impetuous
急需 jíxū to urgently need; urgent need
急救 jíjiù first aid; emergency treatment
急剧 jíjù rapid; sudden
着急 zháojí to worry; to feel anxious
紧急 jǐnjí urgent; emergency
焦急 jiāojí anxiety; anxious
应急 yìngjí to respond to an emergency; to meet a contingency; (attributive) emergency
加急 jiājí to become more urgent; more rapid; urgent; to handle a matter urgently

Example Chinese Sentences:

他的病让我急死了。
I'm worried sick by his illness.

在这么急的急流里游泳,一定会很危险的。
It must be dangerous to swim in this rapid stream.

不急。
There is no rush.

我们很急。
We're in a hurry.

他的性子很急。
He's very short-tempered.

吉田,不要急。
Yoshida, don't stress.

Help! Jiù mìng! (jyo meeng)

Stop, thief! Zhuā zéi! (jwah dzay)

Fire! Zháohuŏ! (jaow hwaw)

Call an ambulance! Jiào jiùhùchē!

Call the police! Jiào jǐngchá!

I am sick. Wŏ bìng le.

Get a doctor. Kuài qù zhăo yīshēng. (kwye chyew jaow ee shung)

I’m lost. Wŏ mílù le. (waw mee loo luh)

It is an emergency
紧急情况
(jĭn jí qíng kuàng)

Fire
火灾
(huǒ zāi)

Get out of here
离开这里
(lí kāi zhè lǐ)

Help
求救
(qiú jiù)

Help me
救命
(jiù mìng)

Police
警察
(jĭng chá)

I need the police
我需要警察帮忙
(wǒ xū yào jǐng chá bāng máng)

Watch out
小心
(xiăo xīn)

Look
(kàn)

Listen
(tīng)

Hurry
快点
(kuài diăn)

Stop
停下
(tíng xià)

Slow
慢的
(màn de)

Fast
快的
(kuài de)

I am lost
我迷路了
(wŏ mí lù le)

I am worried
我很担心
(wŏ hĕn dān xīn)

I can’t find my dad
我找不到爸爸
(wǒ zhǎo bù dào bà bà)

Make-up products 化妆用品 - huà zhuāng yòng pǐn


Make-up products 化妆用品 - huà zhuāng yòng pǐn

Word Decomposition
化妆 huàzhuāng to put on makeup
用品 yòngpǐn articles for use; products; goods

Translations of makeup

Nouns:

化妝 makeup
化妝品 cosmetic, makeup, toiletries
化裝 makeup
結構 structure, construction, architecture, fabric, composition, makeup
扮裝 makeup
構造 structure, construction, configuration, constitution, formation, makeup
拼版 makeup
成份 element, makeup
性格 character, disposition, nature, temperament, makeup, mold

Related Chinese Words:

化妆品 huàzhuāng pǐn cosmetic; makeup product
化妆室 huàzhuāng shì dressing room; powder room; (Tw) toilets
化妆墨 huàzhuāng mò kohl
化妆后 huàzhuāng hòu after putting on make-up
化妆前 huàzhuāng qián before putting on make-up

日用品 rìyòng pǐn articles for daily use
常用品 chángyòng pǐn everyday implement; object of everyday use
耐用品 nàiyòng pǐn durable goods
试用品 shìyòng pǐn prototype; trial product; test sample
实用品 shíyòng pǐn utility

Usage of 就 in Chinese (Part 2 of 2)


Use the word 就 in Chinese language successfully.

Translations of 就

Prepositions:

on 上, 关于, 于, 就, 上面, 上边
concerning 就, 关於

Adverbs:

then 然后, 接着, 则, 于是, 当时, 就
with regard 就
already 已经, 已, 就, 既, 曾经, 曾
only 只有, 仅, 只, 唯一, 只是, 就
right away 马上, 就, 当即, 当时
at once 立刻, 马上, 登时, 就, 当即, 赶快
right off 马上, 就, 当即, 当时

Conjunctions:

that 该, 因为, 就
as soon as 就
as early as 就

Verbs:

undertake 承担, 承办, 从事, 保证, 担当, 就
move towards 走向, 就, 迎
approach 逼近, 来临, 助跑, 迫近, 靠拢, 就
enter 进入, 进, 入, 就, 晋

More Words:

就是 jiùshì (emphasizes that something is precisely or exactly as stated); precisely; exactly; even; if; just like; in the same way as
就要 jiùyào will; shall; to be going to
就是说 jiùshì shuō in other words; that is
就业 jiùyè to get a job; employment
就算 jiùsuàn granted that; even if

成就 chéngjiù accomplishment; success; achievement; to achieve (a result); to create; to bring about
迁就 qiānjiù to yield; to adapt to; to accommodate to (something)
早就 zǎojiù already at an earlier time
俯就 fǔjiù to deign; to condescend; to yield to (entreaties); to submit to (somebody); (polite) to deign to accept (a post)
可就 kějiù certainly

Example Sentences:

我这就走。
I'm going to go.

这就对了。
Now that's right.

你就试试看!
Just you try!

就等一会儿。
Wait just a moment.

就在转角处。
It's just around the corner.

差点就对了。
That's almost correct.

Usage of 就 in Chinese (Part 1 of 2)


Use the word 就 in Chinese language.

Translations of 就

Prepositions:

on 上, 关于, 于, 就, 上面, 上边
concerning 就, 关於

Adverbs:

then 然后, 接着, 则, 于是, 当时, 就
with regard 就
already 已经, 已, 就, 既, 曾经, 曾
only 只有, 仅, 只, 唯一, 只是, 就
right away 马上, 就, 当即, 当时
at once 立刻, 马上, 登时, 就, 当即, 赶快
right off 马上, 就, 当即, 当时

Conjunctions:

that 该, 因为, 就
as soon as 就
as early as 就

Verbs:

undertake 承担, 承办, 从事, 保证, 担当, 就
move towards 走向, 就, 迎
approach 逼近, 来临, 助跑, 迫近, 靠拢, 就
enter 进入, 进, 入, 就, 晋

More Words:

就是 jiùshì (emphasizes that something is precisely or exactly as stated); precisely; exactly; even; if; just like; in the same way as
就要 jiùyào will; shall; to be going to
就是说 jiùshì shuō in other words; that is
就业 jiùyè to get a job; employment
就算 jiùsuàn granted that; even if

成就 chéngjiù accomplishment; success; achievement; to achieve (a result); to create; to bring about
迁就 qiānjiù to yield; to adapt to; to accommodate to (something)
早就 zǎojiù already at an earlier time
俯就 fǔjiù to deign; to condescend; to yield to (entreaties); to submit to (somebody); (polite) to deign to accept (a post)
可就 kějiù certainly

Example Sentences:

我这就走。
I'm going to go.

这就对了。
Now that's right.

你就试试看!
Just you try!

就等一会儿。
Wait just a moment.

就在转角处。
It's just around the corner.

差点就对了。
That's almost correct.

至: Chinese Etymology


至: Chinese Character Etymology:

The character 至 derived from a picture of an upside down arrow stuck in the ground. The arrow REACHED the ground.

Example Chinese Sentences:

我上九点至五点的班。
I work nine to five.

延期或休会至将来某一日期
Postponement or adjournment to a future date.

死亡人数上升(至100)。
The death toll mounted (to 100).

车头的挡风玻璃被砸至粉碎。
The front windshield of a car was smashed to pieces.

至暗礁的垂直距离有五百英尺。
There was a sheer drop of five hundred feet to the rocks below.

警方追踪恐怖分子至其藏匿处。
The police tracked the terrorists to their hide-out.

Wednesday, July 21, 2021

Traffic Signs 交通标记


交通标记 - jiāotōng biāojì - traffic signs

Nouns:

交通 traffic, communication
運輸 transport, transportation, carriage, traffic, conveyance, haul
運 transport, transportation, luck, carriage, fortune, haul
轉運 transport, transportation, traffic, carriage, conveyance
貿易 trading, commerce, commercial trade, traffic

Verbs:

販賣 traffic, sell, peddle
營業 operate, trade, do business, buy and sell, traffic

More Words:
 
量具 liángjù measuring device
量器 liángqì measuring vessel; measuring apparatus
量度 liángdù to measure; measurement
量杯 liángbēi measuring cup; graduated measuring cylinder
量测 liángcè to measure; measurement

衡量 héngliáng to weigh; to examine; to consider
测量 cèliáng survey; to measure; to gauge; to determine
考量 kǎoliáng to consider; to give serious consideration to something; consideration
丈量 zhàngliáng to measure; measurement
估量 gūliáng to estimate; to assess

Example Sentences:

先把尺寸量好,再把木材锯成所需长短。
First measure (it) up, then cut the timber to the correct length.

我想请你量-量尺寸,我要做一套新衣服。
I want you to measure me for a new suit of clothes.

把墙仔细量一量,我们不想买过多的墙纸。
Measure the wall up carefully, we don't want to buy too much wallpaper.

厄罗伯曾用于西班牙语国家的测量液体的单位,容量不一,但量酒类时约等于16。2公升(17夸脱)
A liquid measure formerly used in Spanish-speaking countries, having varying value but equal to about 16.2 liters (17 quarts) when used to measure wine.

一篮一篮子所装的量
The amount that a basket can hold.

让我量量你的血压。
Let me take your blood pressure.

Weights and measures 度量衡


Some Chinese Words:
   
衡量 héngliáng to weigh; to examine; to consider
衡阳 héngyáng Hengyang prefecture-level city in Hunan
衡南 héngnán Hengnan county in Hengyang 衡阳, Hunan
衡山 héngshān Mt Heng in Hunan, southern mountain of the Five Sacred Mountains 五岳; Hengshan county in Hengyang 衡阳, Hunan

衡平 héngpíng to govern; to administer
 
平衡 pínghéng balance; equilibrium
均衡 jūnhéng equal; balanced; harmony; equilibrium
权衡 quánhéng to consider; to weigh (a matter); to balance (pros and cons)
度量衡 dùliàng héng measurement
失衡 shīhéng to unbalance; an imbalance
    
量具 liángjù measuring device
量器 liángqì measuring vessel; measuring apparatus
量度 liángdù to measure; measurement
量杯 liángbēi measuring cup; graduated measuring cylinder
量测 liángcè to measure; measurement

衡量 héngliáng to weigh; to examine; to consider
测量 cèliáng survey; to measure; to gauge; to determine
考量 kǎoliáng to consider; to give serious consideration to something; consideration
丈量 zhàngliáng to measure; measurement
估量 gūliáng to estimate; to assess

Nouns:

amount 量, 额, 数量, 多少, 数目, 数字
volume 卷, 体积, 音量, 量, 额, 册
quantity 数量, 量, 份量, 额
capacity 容量, 量, 才能, 潜力, 器
measure 措施, 测度, 度量, 量, 度, 手段
quantum 量子, 量, 额, 限量
estimate 预算, 量, 揆
mete 量

Verbs:

amount 量, 等于, 合计, 共计, 折合, 为数
measure 测量, 衡量, 测, 计量, 量, 衡
estimate 估计, 预计, 估, 估量, 量, 计量
mete 量

Adjective:

quantitative 量

Feather 羽


Feather 羽

Translations of 羽

Nouns:

feather 羽毛, 羽, 毛
plume 羽, 羽毛, 鹭

More Words:
   
羽毛球 yǔmáo qiú shuttlecock; badminton
羽毛 yǔmáo feather; plumage; plume
羽绒服 yǔróng fú down-filled garment
羽冠 yǔguān feathered crest (of bird)
羽化 yǔhuà levitation (of Daoist immortal); to become as light as a feather and ascend to heaven; (in Daoism) to become immortal; to die; of winged insects, to emerge from the cocoon in adult form; eclosion

刈羽 yìyǔ Kariba or Kariwa, Japanese name; Kariwa, site of Japanese nuclear power plant near Niigata 新舄

尾羽 wěiyǔ tail feathers
换羽 huànyǔ to molt; to change feathers
脱羽 tuōyǔ to shed feathers; to molt (of birds)
关羽 guānyǔ Guan Yu (-219), general of Shu and blood-brother of Liu Bei in Romance of the Three Kingdoms, fearsome fighter famous for virtue and loyalty; posthumously worshipped and identified with the guardian Bodhisattva Sangharama

Office Supplies 办公用品 Bàngōng yòngpǐn


Office Supplies 办公用品 Bàngōng yòngpǐn

Chinese Word Decomposition:

办公 bàngōng to handle official business; to work (esp. in an office)
用品 yòngpǐn articles for use; products; goods

Some Nouns:

辦公室 office, bureau
辦事處 office, agency
廳 hall, office
局 bureau, office, innings, situation, set, departmentalism
處 place, office, point, department, location, spot
職位 position, post, office
機關 organ, body, office, mechanism, stratagem, intrigue
任 office, responsibility
職 office, duty
所 place, office, spot
署 office, bureau, government offices
衙 yamen, office, administrative center, government offices
廨 workplace, office, headquarters
隊部 headquarters, office
輜 supplies, victual, proviant

More Words:
   
公司 gōngsī (business) company; company; firm; corporation; incorporated
公里 gōnglǐ kilometer
公斤 gōngjīn kilogram (kg)
公园 gōngyuán park (for public recreation)
公共汽车 gōnggòng qìchē bus
 
办公 bàngōng to handle official business; to work (esp. in an office)
不公 bùgōng unjust; unfair
外公 wàigōng (coll.) mother's father; maternal grandfather
主公 zhǔgōng Your Highness; Your Majesty
充公 chōnggōng to confiscate

Example Sentences:

他们反对把公地圈为私有。
They are opposed to the enclosure of common land.

公学制常常被看作是上层阶级神圣不可侵犯的事物。
The Public School system is often seen to be the sacred cow of the upper classes.

公正是仁政的要素。
Justice is an important element of good government.

我们家在公路边上。
Our house stands by the road.

他现在在伦敦洽公。
He is in London on business now.

我们是在公路旁吃的饭。
We ate our meal by the roadside.

Pharmacy 药店 yào diàn


Nouns:

藥店 pharmacy, drugstore
藥房 pharmacy, drugstore
制藥 pharmacy
藥劑學 pharmaceutics, pharmacy
藥物 drug, pharmaceutical, medicine, medication, medicament
藥物治療 medication

Example Sentences:

最近的药店在哪里?
Where is the nearest drugstore?

他的兄弟企图抢劫这个药店,结果被送进了监狱。
His brother tried to hold up the drugstore and was sent to jail.

Want 要 yào


Translations of 要

Verbs:

want 想, 要, 需要, 欲, 愿意, 需
must 必须, 务必, 要, 必, 须, 应该
wish 希望, 愿望, 祝, 想, 要, 祝愿
ask 问, 要求, 询问, 请, 请求, 要
desire 欲望, 愿望, 欲, 要, 愒, 选拔
demand 需求, 要求, 需要, 索, 索取, 要
request 请求, 要求, 请, 求, 询问, 要
coerce 胁迫, 迫使, 要挟, 逼迫, 逼, 要
force 迫使, 强迫, 强行, 逼, 迫, 要
ask to do 要

Adjectives:

important 重要, 重大, 重, 要, 要紧, 当紧
vital 要, 有活力

Conjunction:

if 如果, 是否, 如, 假如, 要是, 要

Example Sentences:

我要书。
I want the book.

我要睡觉
I want to sleep.

我要你去。
I want you to go.

我要减肥。
I'd like to lose some weight.

我要预约。
I'd like to make a reservation.

我要睡了。
I am going to bed!

To Stop; To Stand 止


People use the foot to stop. Therefore, etymology of the character 止 (to stop, to stand) is related to a foot.

More Translations with 止

Adverb:

only 只有, 仅, 只, 唯一, 只是, 止
just 只是, 刚刚, 只, 刚, 刚好, 止

Verb:

stop 停止, 站, 阻止, 停, 停车, 止

Preposition:

till 直到, 止, 迄, 迨
to 于, 至, 对, 向, 给, 止

Example Sentences with 止:

不单止每一家的储物室里都有一副骷髅(丑事),而且每一副骷髅里都有一根螺丝是松的。
Not only is there a skeleton in every closet, but there is a screw loose in every skeleton.

他止住了呼吸。
He held his breath.

医生给了她一些止疼药片。
The doctor has given her some tablets to take away the pain.

到明年一月止他将三年不在了。
He will have been absent three years next January.

她可以无止尽的等待,但是他将永远不会回来。
She can wait till the cows come home but he'll never come back.

(Repeating of Words or Doubling Up) Reduplication 重複


It seems that "Reduplication" is very common in Mandarin Chinese. The meaning of the words may be intensified or softened. It is repeating or doubling up of certain words and characters, including adjectives. Reduplication can enhance the descriptive feeling of an adjective.

In Chinese Mandarin language, you can repeat some words, usually verbs and adjectives, to soften the meaning and tone of expression slightly.

看书 kànshū: to read
看看书 kànkan shū: to read a bit

Repeating a verb, like in 看看书, really indicates doing something "a little bit" with the action done rather casually. Only volitional verbs, things we willingly do, can be reduplicated, for example:

我喜欢听音乐。周末就在家听听音乐,看看书。
Wǒ xǐhuan tīng yīnyuè. Zhōumò jiù zài jiā tīngting yīnyuè, kànkan shū.

I enjoy listening to music. On the weekend, (I) just stay home and listen to some music and do some reading.

It seems that many verbs in Mandarin are Verb-Object structure, such as 说话 shuōhuà (to speak words) and 跑步 pǎobù (to run). In V-O structures, only the verb is repeated.

说说话 shuōshuo huà "to talk a bit, to chat"
跑跑步 pǎopao bù "to run a bit"
看看电视 kànkan diànshì "to watch some TV"

Also keep in mind, there are certain "tone changes" going on. When a monosyllabic verb is repeated, the repeated (second) one is usually a neutral tone because the first one is the main verb and takes the "stress."

吃吃东西 chīchi dōngxi "to nibble, to snack"
出去走走 chūqù zǒuzou "to take a stroll outside"

For monosyllabic verbs, 一 can be added between the original and the repeated verb. The meaning stays the same, but the repeated verb will remain the same tone as the original.

说一说 shuō yìshuō
吃一吃 chī yìchī
走一走 zǒu yìzǒu
看一看 kàn yíkàn

Note: tone changes for 一 yī: When followed by a 4th tone, 一 is pronounced as a 2nd tone. When followed by a 1st, 2nd or 3rd tone, 一 is pronounced in the 4th tone.

What about disyllabic (two character) verbs? Most of the volitional verbs can be reduplicated to indicate doing it relatively casually or soften the tone of the sentence.

讨论讨论 tǎolùn tǎolùn: "to discuss a bit"
整理整理 zhěnglǐ zhěnglǐ "to tidy up a little"
参观参观 cānguān cānguān "to casually visit"

For disyllabic (multi-character) verbs, the repeated portion remains the same tone as the original verbs. Unlikely monosyllabic verbs, you cannot add 一 to these.

这个问题,我和他讨论讨论,再告诉你。
Zhègè wèntí, wǒ hé tā tǎolùn tǎolùn, zài gàosù nǐ.
Regarding this topic, let me discuss it with them a little and then I’ll let you know.

Fruit 果


Nouns:

水果 fruit, fruits, fruitage
果 fruit
果實 fruit, fruits, fructification, fruitage
蓏 fruit
果類 fruit

Verbs:

結果實 fructify, fruit

Strange Exotic Fruits Commonly Eaten in China:

Durian (榴莲 liúlián) Durian is covered with sharp spikes and often pre-cut in markets.
Dragonfruit (火龙果 huǒlóngguǒ)
Rambutans (红毛丹 hóngmáodān)
Bayberry (杨梅 yángméi)
Mangosteens (山竹 shānzhú)
Persimmons (柿子 shìzi)
Lychee (荔枝 lìzhi)
Pomelos (柚子 yòuzi)

Cooking (Chinese) 做菜 ( 中國人 )


Cooking 做菜

Nouns:

廚師 chef, cook
廚子 cook
炊事員 cook
廚司 chef, cook

Verbs:

煮 cook, boil, poach, boil up
烹調 cook, prepare food
烹飪 cook
烹 cook, boil, fry
爨 cook
炊 cook, steam
燒 burn, roast, fever, cook, bake, grill
煲 boil, cook, heat
胹 cook, parch, coddle, boil soft, do, mull
起火 cook, prepare food

More:

Drinking

Alcoholic

Píjiǔ: Beer
Báijiǔ: Literally means "white liquor"
Shàoxīngjiǔ: Shaoxing fermented rice wine
Hóng pútáojiǔ: Red wine
Bái pútáojiǔ: White wine
Gānbēi: Cheers!

Non-alcoholic

Guǒzhī: Fruit juice
Yī píng shuǐ: One bottle of water
Bīng shuǐ: Ice water (not really something you should order in China)
Kěkǒukělè or Kělè: Coca-Cola
Xuěbì: Sprite
Kāfēi: Coffee
Dòujiāng: Fresh soymilk
Niúnǎi: Literally "cow’s milk"

Tea

Hóngchá: Black tea
Lǜchá: Green tea
Mòlìhuāchá: Jasmine tea
Wūlóngchá: Oolong tea
Júhuā chá: Chrysanthemum tea
Nǎichá: Milk tea/bubble tea

Food

For the carnivore

Ròu: Meat
Jī ròu: Chicken
Niúròu: Beef
Zhū ròu: Pork
Yáng ròu: Mutton

From the sea

Hǎixiān: Seafood
Yú: Fish
Xiā: Shrimp
Xiè: Crab
Lóngxiā: Lobster

Vegetables

Dòufu: Tofu
Dòuyá: Bean sprout
Bōcài: Spinach
Báicài: Cabbage
Cōng: Scallion/Onion
Sǔn: Bamboo shoot
Mógu: Mushroom
Xīhóngshì/ Fān qié: Tomato
Yùmǐ: Corn
Tǔdòu: Potato
Qiézi: Eggplant

Menu Mainstays

Mǐfàn: White rice
Chǎo fàn: Fried rice
Jiǎozi: Dumplings
Húntún: Wonton
Tāng: Soup
Bāozi: Stuffed steamed bun
Mántou: Plain steamed bun
Chǎomiàn: Fried noodles
Tāngmiàn: Noodle soup
Zhōu: Congee/Porridge
Yóutiáo: Cruller (to accompany Zhōu)
Jīdàn: Egg
Cháyè dàn: Tea-soaked egg
Pídàn: Century-old egg (preserved duck egg)

Good Regional Dishes to Know

Sìchuān Huǒguō: Sichuan hot pot
Chāshāo: Cantonese barbeque pork
Běijīng kǎoyā: Beijing roast duck
Lánzhōu lāmiàn: Lanzhou hand-pulled noodles
Xiǎolóng bāo: Shanghai small steamed buns
Yángròu chuan: Chinese Muslim barbeque mutton skewers
Dōng pō zhū ròu: Hangzhou braised pork belly
Hézǐ jiān: Fujian oyster omelet
Chǎngshā chòu dòufu: Changsha-style stinky tofu

Flavor

Là: Spicy
Má là: Numbing spicy
Suān: Sour
Xián: Salty
Tián: Sweet
Kǔ: Bitter
Xiān: Similar to "umami"
Chòu: Smelly or pungent
Wèidào: Taste/smell

Spices/Seasoning

Jiàngyóu: Soy sauce
Cù: Vinegar
Dàsuàn: Garlic
Jiāng: Ginger
Zhīma: Sesame
Làjiāo: Hot pepper
Huājiāo: Sichuan peppercorn (literally "flower pepper")

Good To Know

Chī fàn: To eat (literally "eat rice")
Zǎocān: Breakfast
Wǔcān/Wǔfàn: Lunch
Wǎncān/Wǎnfàn: Dinner
Diǎnxīn: Dessert
Cānguǎn: Restaurant
Gè rén: (Number) of people
Fúwùyuán: Waiter/waitress

Kuàizi: Chopsticks
Chā: Fork

Wǒ chī sù: I am vegetarian.
Wǒ yào zhège: I would like this one.
Yǒu shénme hào chī de: What’s good to eat?
Zhè shì shénme: What is this?
Càidān: Menu
Diǎn cài: To order
Duōshǎo qián: How much (does it cost)?
Hěn hào chī: Delicious
Zhēn bàng: Awesome