Tuesday, November 15, 2022

清谈 Salary Negotiation - Upper Intermediate Chinese Lessons


Key Vocabulary:

资深 - zīshēn - veteran (journalist etc); senior; highly experienced
工作人员 - gōngzuòrényuán - staff member
争取 - zhēngqǔ - to fight for; to strive for; to win over
项目 - xiàngmù - item; project; (sports) event
底气 - dǐqì - confidence, lung capacity; lung power; stamina
从事 - cóngshì - to go for; to engage in; to undertake
行业 - hángyè - industry
行政 - xíngzhèng - administrative
门面 - ménmian - shop front; facade
前台 - qiántái - front desk

Nouns:

经验 experience
经历 experience, skill
阅历 experience, sophisticate, patriarch, first hand
见识 experience, knowledge, sensibleness
历 calendar, experience
熟练 skill, experience, practice, knack, conversance, conversancy
涉 experience
身受 experience
熟 maturity, ripeness, skill, knack, matureness, experience
员工 staff, personnel
人员 personnel, staff, crew
职工 staff, worker
标尺 staff, staff gauge, rear sight, surveyor's rod
杆 pole, stick, handle, staff
棍棒 club, wand, staff, cudgel, waddy
殳 lance, pike, staff
谱表 staff, stave

Verbs:

经验 experience
经历 experience, undergo, go through
阅历 experience
历 experience, undergo, pass through
经受 withstand, undergo, experience, stand, endure, weather
意会 sense, feel, experience, intuit, be aware of, discern
阅世 experience

Beginner Chinese - 20 useful essential phrases 初级汉语 - 20 个有用的基本短语


Basic Mandarin Chinese Words and Phrases
基本的普通话中文单词和短语

Hello: Nǐhǎo (Nee how)
Thank you: Xièxiè (Shieh-shieh)
You're welcome: Bù kèqì (Boo kuh-chi)
Good morning: Zǎo (Zhow)
Goodnight: Wǎn ān (One-un)
My friend's name is...: Wǒ de péngyǒu jiào ....
Where is the bathroom: Xǐshǒujiān zài nǎlǐ? (See-sow-jian zai na-lee?)

你好!Nǐhǎo - Hello!
(Nee haow)

你好吗?Nǐhǎo ma? - How are you?
(Nee haow ma)

很好 Hěn hǎo - Good
(Hun haow)

还好 Hái hǎo - Pretty good
(Hi haow)

不太好 Bù tài hǎo - Not so good
(Boo tye haow)

早上好 Zǎoshang hǎo - Good morning
(Dzow shung haow)

晚上好 Wǎnshang hǎo - Good evening
(Wun shung haow)

晚安 Wǎn’ān - Good night
(Wun-un)

你叫什么名字?Nǐ jiào shénme míngzi? - What’s your name? (Informal)
(Nee jyaow shun muh ming dzrr)

我叫__ Wǒ jiào__ - My name is
(Wor jyaow..)

您贵姓?Nín guìxìng? - What is your surname? (Formal)
(Neen gway shing)

我姓__ Wǒ xìng__ - My surname is
(Wor shing)

你多大?Nǐ duōdà? - How old are you?
(Nee dwor da)

我三十岁 Wǒ sānshí suì - I’m thirty (years old)
(Wor sun shrr sway)

你来自哪里?Nǐ láizì nǎli? - Where do you come from?
(Nee lye dzrr na lee)

我来自中国 Wǒ láizì zhōngguó - I come from China
(Wor lye dzrr jong gwor)

你是哪国人?- Nǐ shì nǎ guó rén? - Which country are you from?
(Nee shrr na gwor run)

我是中国人 Wǒ shì zhōngguó rén - I’m Chinese (literally, "I’m a Chinese person")
(Wor shrr jong gwor run)

我是外国人 Wǒ shì wàiguó rén - I’m a foreigner
(Wor shrr wye gwor run)

老外 Lǎowài - Foreigner (a common slang term!)
(Laow wye)

很高兴认识你 Hěn gāoxìng rènshi nǐ - Nice to meet you
(Hun gaow shing run shrr nee)

谢谢! Xièxiè! - Thank you!
(Shyeah shyeah)

非常感谢! Fēicháng gǎnxiè! - Thank you so much!
(Fay chung gun shyeah)

不用谢 Bù yòng xiè - You’re welcome (literally, “no need for thanks”)
(Boo yong shyeah)

不客气 Bù kèqì - You’re welcome (literally, “no need to be so polite”)
(Boo kuh chee)

不好意思 Bù hǎoyìsi - Excuse me, sorry (To get attention, for getting past, for mild apologies)
(Boo haow yee srr)

对不起 Duìbuqǐ - Sorry (A more emphatic apology)
(Dway boo chee)

请问 ?Qǐngwèn ? - Could I ask ? (A polite way to preface a question)
(Cheeng wun)

麻烦你了Mǎfan nǐ le - Sorry to bother you
(Ma fun nee luh)

没问题 Méi wèntí - No problem
(May wun tee)

好的!Hǎo de! - OK!
(Haow duh)

#32(你)听得懂吗?(Nǐ) tīngdedǒng ma? - Do you understand?
(Nee teeng duh dong ma)
#33(我)听得懂 (Wǒ) tīngdedǒng - I understand
(Wor teeng duh dong)
#34(我)听不懂!(Wǒ) tīngbudǒng - I don’t understand!
(Wor teeng boo dong)
#35(你)会说中文吗?(Nǐ) huì shuō zhōngwén ma? - Do you speak Chinese?
(Nee hway shwor jong wun ma)
#36(你)会说英文吗?(Nǐ) huì shuō yīngwén ma - Do you speak English?
(Nee hway shwor yeeng wun ma)
#37(我)不会说中文 (Wǒ) bù huì shuō zhōngwén - I don’t speak Chinese
(Wor boo hway shwor jong wun)
#38(我)会说 (Wǒ) huì shuō - Yes, I can speak it
(Wor hway shwor)
#39 可以说得慢一点吗?Kěyǐ shuō de màn yīdiǎn ma? - Could you speak more slowly?
(Kuh yee shwor duh mun yee dyen ma)
#40 __ 什么意思?__ shénme yìsi? - What does __ mean?
(__shun muh yee srr)
#41 __怎么说?__zěnme shuō? - How do you say __?
(__dzun muh shwor)
#42 (我)不知道 (Wǒ) bù zhīdao - I don’t know
(Wor boo jrr daow)

#43 不好意思,可以问个路玛? Bù hǎoyìsi, kěyǐ wèn ge lù ma? - Excuse me, could I ask for some directions?
(Boo haow yee srr, kuh yee wun guh loo ma)
#44 到__怎么走?Dào ___ zěnme zǒu? - How do you get to the __?
(Daow __ dzun muh dzoh)
#45 __在哪儿?/ __在哪里?__zài nǎr?/__ zài nǎli - Where is the __?
(__dzye narr/__dzye na lee)
 (Pro tip: the first variant, with an “r’’ sound, is more common in Beijing and northern China, while you’ll hear more of the second variant further south.)
#46 __在那儿/__在那里 __zài nàr/__zài nàlǐ - The __ is over there.
( ____ zay naar / _____ zay naa-lee)

哪儿nǎr means "Where?"
while 那儿 nàr means "there!"
#47 在这儿/在这里 Zài zhèr/Zài zhèlǐ - It’s here.
(Dzye jurr/Dzye juh lee)
#48 直走 Zhí zǒu - Go straight ahead
(jrr dzoh)
#49 右转 Yòu zhuǎn - Turn right
(Yoh jwun)
#50 左转 Zuǒ zhuǎn - Turn left
(Dzwor jwun)
#51 过马路 Guò mǎlù - Cross the road
(Gwor ma loo)
#52 我要去__ Wǒ yào qù__ - I want to go to __ (Also good for directing a taxi or buying a ticket)
(Wor yaow choo)

#53 一张到北京的票 Yī zhāng dào Běijīng de piào - One ticket to Beijing
(Yee jung daow bay jeeng duh pyaow)
#54 两张票 Liǎng zhāng piào - Two tickets
(Lyung jung pyaow)
#55 来回 Lái huí - Return/round-trip
(Lye hway)
#56 单程 Dān chéng - One-way
(Dun chung)
#57 机场 Jīchǎng - Airport
(Jee chung)
#58 火车站 Huǒchēzhàn - Train station
(Hwor chuh jun)
#59 地铁站 Dìtiězhàn - Metro/subway/underground station
(Dee tyeah jun)
#60 公交车站 Gōngjiāochēzhàn - Bus stop/station
(Gong jyaow chuh jun)
#61 出租车 Chūzūchē - Taxi
(Choo dzoo chuh)

#62 几位?Jǐwèi? - How many people?
(Jee way)
#63 一位 Yīwèi - One person (i.e. "a table for one")
(Yee way)
#64 两位 Liǎngwèi - Two people
(Lyung way)
#65 我想看一下菜单 Wǒ xiǎng kàn yīxià càidān - I’d like to look at the menu
(Wor shyung kun yee shyah tsay dun)
#66 点菜Diǎn cài - (I’m/we’re) ready to order
(Dyen tsye)
#67 我要  Wǒ yào  - I’ll have
(Wor yaow)
#68 服务员!Fúwùyuán! - Waiter!
(Foo woo yoo-an)
#69 买单!Mǎidān! - The bill, please!
(Mye dun)

#70 这个 Zhège - This one
(Jay guh)
#71 那个 Nàge - That one
(Nay guh)
#72 我要这个 Wǒyào zhège - I’ll take this one
(Wor yaow jay guh)
#73 我(不)喜欢那个 Wǒ (bù) xǐhuan nàge - I (don’t) like that one
(Wor boo shee hwun nay guh)
#74 多少钱?Duōshao qián? - How much is it?
(Dwor shaow chyen)
#75 太贵了!Tài guì le! - Too expensive!
(Tye gway luh)
#76 便宜一点儿!Piányi yīdiǎnr! - A bit cheaper! (To ask for a better price)
(Pyen yee yee dyerr)
#77 可以刷卡吗?Kěyǐ shuākǎ ma? - Can I use a card?
(Kuh-yee shak-a ma?)
#78 不要了! Bù yào le! - I don’t want it! (To stop someone hassling you to buy something)
(Bu-YA-o-luh)
#79 我看一下 Wǒ kàn yīxià - I’m just looking
(Wor kun yee shyah)

200 Essential Verbs in Chinese with fun pictures and example sentences 200个基本中文动词,附有趣的图片和例句


A verb (from Latin verbum 'word') is a word (part of speech) that in syntax generally conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand). In the usual description of English, the basic form, with or without the particle to, is the infinitive. In many languages, verbs are inflected (modified in form) to encode tense, aspect, mood, and voice. A verb may also agree with the person, gender or number of some of its arguments, such as its subject, or object. Verbs have tenses: present, to indicate that an action is being carried out; past, to indicate that an action has been done; future, to indicate that an action will be done.

You might wonder if there are irregular verbs in Chinese. The grammar of Chinese language can be summarized as: 1) No conjugations: each verb has only one form, and for that matter: no irregular verbs; 2) No tenses: use of particles to express if an action takes place in the past, present or future.

动词(来自拉丁语 verbum 'word')是一个词(词性),在句法中通常表示一个动作(带、读、走、跑、学)、一个事件(发生、成为)或一种存在状态(是,存在,站立)。在通常的英语描述中,基本形式,带或不带分词to,都是不定式。在许多语言中,动词经过变形(形式上的修饰)以编码时态、体、语气和语态。一个动词也可以同意它的某些论元的人称、性别或数量,例如它的主语或宾语。动词有时态: 现在时,表示正在进行的动作;过去,表示动作已经完成; future,表示将要完成的动作。

你可能想知道汉语中是否有不规则动词。汉语语法可以概括为: 1)无变位:每个动词只有一种形式,因此:没有不规则动词; 2) 无时态:用助词表示动作发生在过去、现在还是将来。

Basic Chinese Verbs List: 基本中文动词表:

Able 能, 能够 Néng, Nénggòu
Accept 接受 Jiēshòu
Add 加,补充 Jiā, Bǔchōng
Admit 承认 Chéngrèn
Agree 同意,赞成,答应 Tóngyì, Zànchéng, Dāyìng
Allow 允许,让 Yǔnxǔ, Ràng
Apologize 道歉 Dàoqiàn
Appear 出现,显得 Chūxiàn, Xiǎndé
Apply 申请 Shēnqǐng
Arrive Dào
Ask Wèn
Attend 出席,参加 Cānjiā, Chūxí     
Beat 打,揍,打败 Dǎ, Zòu, Dǎbài
Begin 开始 Kāishǐ
Believe 相信 Xiāngxìn
Blog 博客 Bókè  
Born 出生 Chūshēng
Bring Dài
Buy Mǎi
Call 打电话,叫 Dǎ diànhuà, Jiào
Can 可以,能,会,行 Kěyǐ, Néng, Huì, Xíng
Cause 使,令,引起,导致 Shǐ, Lìng, Yǐnqǐ, Dǎozhì  
Change 换,改,变 Huàn, Gǎibiàn, Biàn 
Charge Chōng
Check 检查,查明,查 Jiǎnchá, Chá míng, Chá
Clean 打扫,清理 Dǎsǎo, Qīnglǐ     
Come Lái
Consider 考虑 ,想想 Kǎolǜ, Xiǎng xiǎng
Continue 继续 Jìxù
Cook 煮,做饭 Zhǔ, Zuò fàn  
Cry 哭,叫喊 Kū, Jiàohǎn
Cut 切,剪 Qiè, Jiǎn  
Decide 决定 Juédìng
Delete 删除 Shānchú  
Disappear 消失,不见了 Xiāoshī, Bùjiànle
Discover 发现,发觉 Fāxiàn, Fājué
Dislike 不喜欢 Bù xǐhuān  
Do Zuò  
Download 下载 Xiàzài
Dream 梦见 Mèng jiàn
Drink
Drive 开车,驾驶 Kāichē, Jiàshǐ       
Eat Chī
Explain 解释 Jiěshì
Express 表达,表示 Biǎodá, Biǎoshì
Feel 觉得,感觉,认为 Juédé, Gǎnjué, Rènwéi 
Find Zhǎo
Flee 逃跑 Táopǎo
Fly Fēi
Get 得到 Dédào
Give 给,送 Gěi, Sòng  
Go
Greet 打招呼,迎接 Dǎzhāohū, Yíngjiē         
Guarantee 保证 Bǎozhèng 
Guess 猜测,猜 Cāicè, Cāi 
Hate 讨厌,恨 Tǎoyàn, Hèn
Have Yǒu
Hear Tīng
Help Bāng     
Hope 希望 Xīwàng  
Hug 拥抱,抱着 Yǒngbào, Bàozhe
Inform 通知,告诉 Tōngzhī, Gàosù 
Invite 邀请,请 Yāoqǐng, Qǐng
Keep 收,保留 Shōu, Bǎoliú
Kiss Wěn
Know 知道,认识 Zhīdào, Rènshì
Learn 学习 Xuéxí
Leave 离开,留下 Líkāi, Liú xià  
Let Ràng
Like 喜欢 ,像 Xǐhuān, Xiàng 
Live 住,生活,过 Zhù, Shēnghuó, Guò
Listen Tīng
Look Kàn     
Lose 输,失去,丢失,迷路 Shū, Shīqù, Diūshī, Mílù  
Love 爱,喜欢 Ài, Xǐhuān  
Make 制造,做 Zhìzào, Zuò         
Miss 想念,错过 Xiǎngniàn, Cuòguò
Misunderstand 误会,误解 Wùhuì, Wùjiě
Need 需要,必须 Xūyào, Bìxū  
Notice 注意 Zhùyì
Notify 通知,告诉 Tōngzhī, Gàosù
Observe 观察 Guānchá
Order 订购,订,命令 Dìnggòu, Dìng, Mìnglìng   
Participate 参加,参与 Cānjiā, Cānyù  
Pay 付,还 Fù, Huán 
Perform 表演 Biǎoyǎn
Persist 坚持,持续 Jiānchí, Chíxù
Play 玩,播放 Wán, Bòfàng  
Possess 拥有 Yǒngyǒu
Pour Dào
Prepare 准备 Zhǔnbèi
Prevent 阻止 Zǔzhǐ  
Promise 答应,承诺 Dāyìng, Chéngnuò
Pronounce 发音 Fāyīn    
Protect 保护 Bǎohù
Provide 提供,给 Tígōng, Gěi  
Put Fàng
Punish 惩罚 Chéngfá
Question 问,怀疑 Wèn, Huáiyí         
Reach 到,到达,达到 Dào, Dàodá, Dádào  
Read 读, 阅读,看 Dú, Yuèdú, kàn
Receive 收到,接到 Shōu dào, Jiē dào  
Record 记录 Jìlù     
Reflect 思考,深思 Sīkǎo, Shēnsī
Register 登记 Dēngjì
Reject 拒绝 Jùjué
Repeat 重复 Chóngfù
Replace 更换,代替,替代 Gēnghuàn, Dàitì, Tìdài 
Request 要求,拜托 Yāoqiú, Bàituō     
Return 回,退换 Huí, Tuìhuàn   
Resign 辞职 Cízhí
Run Pǎo     
Save 省,救,保存 Shěng, jiù, Bǎocún  
Say Shuō
Scold
Search 寻找,搜寻 Xúnzhǎo, Sōuxún 
See 看见 Kànjiàn
Seem 似乎,好像,显得 Sìhū, Hǎoxiàng, Xiǎndé
Sell 卖,出售 Mài, Chūshòu
Send 发送 ,发,寄 Fāsòng, Fā, Jì 
Shout Hǎn
Sit Zuò       
Sleep Shuì
Stand Zhàn
Stay 留,住 Liú, Zhù 
Stop Tíng
Stroll 漫步 Mànbù
Study 读书,研究 Dúshū, Yánjiū
Speak Jiǎng
Spell 拼写,拼读 Pīnxiě, Pīn dú 
Surf 上网 Shàngwǎng
Suspect 怀疑 Huáiyí
Swim 游泳,游 Yóuyǒng, Yóu       
Take 拿,携带,搭 Ná, Xiédài, Dā
Teach 教,教导 Jiāo, Jiàodǎo
Tell 告诉,讲,说 Gàosù, Jiǎng, Shuō     
Think Xiǎng
Travel 旅行 Lǚxíng  
Try 尝试,试 Chángshì, Shì   
Trust 相信 Xiāngxìn  
Type 打字 Dǎzì  
Understand 理解,了解,明白,清楚,懂 Lǐjiě, Liǎojiě, Míngbái, Qīngchǔ, Dǒng
Upload 上载 Shàngzài
Verify 确认,证实 Quèrèn, Zhèngshí  
Visit 参观,拜访,访问 Cānguān, Bàifǎng, Fǎngwèn  
Walk 走,走路,步行 Zǒu
Want Yào
Warn 警告 Jǐnggào
Wash Xǐ     
Waste 浪费 Làngfèi     
Watch 看,留意 Kàn, Liúyì  
Wear 穿,戴 Chuān, Dài     
Win 赢,获胜 Yíng, Huòshèng  
Wish 想要,希望,祝 Xiǎng yào, Xīwàng, Zhù  
Work 工作 Gōngzuò  
Write Xiě

Learn Weather Forecast in Chinese 学习中文天气预报


English:

So-called Weather Forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the conditions of the atmosphere for a given location and time. People have attempted to predict the weather informally for millennia and formally since the 19th century. Weather forecasts are made by collecting quantitative data about the current state of the atmosphere, land, and ocean and using meteorology to project how the atmosphere will change at a given place.

Once calculated manually based mainly upon changes in barometric pressure, current weather conditions, and sky condition or cloud cover, weather forecasting now relies on computer-based models that take many atmospheric factors into account. Certain human input is still required to pick the best possible forecast model to base the forecast upon, which involves pattern recognition skills, teleconnections, knowledge of model performance, and knowledge of model biases. The inaccuracy of forecasting is due to the chaotic nature of the atmosphere, the massive computational power required to solve the equations that describe the atmosphere, the land, and the ocean, the error involved in measuring the initial conditions, and an incomplete understanding of atmospheric and related processes. Hence, forecasts become less accurate as the difference between current time and the time for which the forecast is being made (the range of the forecast) increases. The use of ensembles and model consensus help narrow the error and provide confidence level in the weather forecast.

There is a vast variety of end uses to weather forecasts. Weather warnings are important forecasts because they are used to protect life and property. Forecasts based on temperature and precipitation are important to agriculture, and therefore to traders within commodity markets. Temperature forecasts are used by utility companies to estimate demand over coming days. On an everyday basis, many use weather forecasts to determine what to wear on a given day. Since various outdoor activities are severely curtailed by heavy rain, snow and wind chill, forecasts can be used to plan activities around these events, and to plan ahead and survive them.

Weather forecasting is a part of the economy, for example, in 2009, the US spent approximately $5.1 billion on weather forecasting, producing benefits estimated at six times as much.

Chinese:

所谓的天气预报是应用科学技术来预测给定地点和时间的大气状况。几千年来,人们一直在尝试非正式地预测天气,而自 19 世纪以来,人们一直在尝试正式地预测天气。天气预报是通过收集有关大气、陆地和海洋当前状态的定量数据,并使用气象学来预测给定地点的大气将如何变化。

曾经主要根据气压变化、当前天气状况和天空状况或云量进行手动计算的天气预报现在依赖于考虑了许多大气因素的基于计算机的模型。仍然需要某些人工输入来选择最佳的预测模型作为预测的基础,这涉及模式识别技能、远程连接、模型性能知识和模型偏差知识。预测的不准确性是由于大气的混沌性质、求解描述大气、陆地和海洋的方程式所需的大量计算能力、测量初始条件所涉及的误差以及对大气的不完全理解及相关流程。因此,随着当前时间与进行预测的时间(预测范围)之间的差异增加,预测变得不太准确。使用集合和模型共识有助于缩小误差并提供天气预报的置信度。

天气预报有各种各样的最终用途。天气警报是重要的预报,因为它们用于保护生命和财产。基于温度和降水量的预测对农业很重要,因此对商品市场的贸易商也很重要。公用事业公司使用温度预测来估计未来几天的需求。在日常生活中,许多人使用天气预报来确定在特定日期穿什么。由于各种户外活动因大雨、大雪和寒风而严重减少,因此可以使用预报来规划围绕这些事件的活动,并提前计划并在这些事件中幸存下来。

天气预报是经济的一部分,例如,2009 年,美国在天气预报上花费了大约 51 亿美元,产生的收益估计是这个数字的六倍。

Learn Chinese Through News: Network News Broadcast: Intermediate Level. Pinyin and English Translation


English:

So-called News Broadcasting is the medium of broadcasting various news events and other information via television, radio, or the internet in the field of broadcast journalism. The content is usually either produced locally in a radio studio or television studio newsroom, or by a broadcast network. It may include material such as sports coverage, weather forecasts, certain traffic reports, political commentary, expert opinions, editorial content, and other material that the broadcaster feels is relevant to their audience. An individual news program is typically reported in a series of individual stories that are presented by one or more anchors. A frequent inclusion is live or recorded interviews by various field reporters.

So-called Television News Programs really inform and discuss current events via the medium of television. A "news bulletin" or a "newscast" are television programs lasting from seconds to hours that provide updates on events. Programs can vary their focus; some newscasts discuss largely international or national matters, while others will focus on regional and various local news events.

Chinese:

所谓新闻广播,是广播新闻领域中通过电视、广播或互联网传播各种新闻事件和其他信息的媒介。内容通常在广播演播室或电视演播室新闻编辑室本地制作,或由广播网络制作。它可能包括体育报道、天气预报、某些交通报告、政治评论、专家意见、社论内容以及广播公司认为与其观众相关的其他材料。单个新闻节目通常在由一个或多个主播呈现的一系列单个故事中进行报道。经常包括各种实地记者的现场或录音采访。

所谓的电视新闻节目实际上是通过电视媒体传播和讨论时事。 "新闻公告"或"新闻广播"是提供事件更新的持续几秒到几小时的电视节目。程序可以改变它们的重点;一些新闻广播主要讨论国际或国家事务,而另一些则侧重于区域和各种地方新闻事件。

Learn Chinese Through News: Economy and Warehouses: Intermediate to Advanced Level. Pinyin and English Translation


English:

Economy:

An economy is really an area of the production, distribution and trade, as well as consumption of goods and services. In general, it is defined as a social domain that emphasize the practices, discourses, and material expressions associated with the production, use, and management of scarce resources'. A so-called given economy is a set of processes that involves its culture, values, education, technological evolution, history, social organization, political structure, legal systems, and natural resources as main factors. These factors give context, content, and set the conditions and parameters in which an economy functions. In other words, the economic domain is a social domain of interrelated certain human practices and transactions that does not stand alone.

Economic agents can be individuals, businesses, organizations, or governments. Economic transactions occur when two groups or parties agree to the value or price of the transacted certain good or service, commonly expressed in a certain currency. However, so-called monetary transactions only account for a small part of the economic domain.

Vegetables:

Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still commonly used and is applied to plants collectively to refer to all edible plant matter, including the flowers, fruits, stems, leaves, roots, and seeds. An alternative definition of the term is applied somewhat arbitrarily, often by culinary and cultural tradition. It may really exclude foods derived from some plants that are fruits, flowers, nuts, and cereal grains, but include savoury fruits such as tomatoes and courgettes, flowers such as broccoli, and seeds such as pulses.

Originally, vegetables were really collected from the wild by hunter-gatherers and entered cultivation in several parts of the world, probably during the period 10,000 BC to 7,000 BC, when a new agricultural way of life developed. At first, plants which grew locally would have been cultivated, but as time went on, trade brought exotic crops from elsewhere to add to domestic types. Nowadays, most vegetables are grown all over the world as climate permits, and crops may be cultivated in protected environments in less suitable locations. China is the largest producer of vegetables, and global trade in agricultural products allows consumers to purchase vegetables grown in faraway countries. The scale of production varies from subsistence farmers supplying the needs of their family for food, to agribusinesses with vast acreages of single-product crops. Depending on the type of vegetable concerned, harvesting the crop is followed by grading, storing, processing, and marketing.

Vegetables can really be eaten either raw or cooked and play an important role in human nutrition, being mostly low in fat and carbohydrates, but high in vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber. Many nutritionists encourage people to consume plenty of fruit and vegetables, five or more portions a day often being recommended.

Chinese:

经济:

经济实际上是一个生产、分配和贸易以及商品和服务消费的领域。一般来说,它被定义为强调与稀缺资源的生产、使用和管理相关的实践、话语和物质表达的社会领域。所谓既定经济,是指以文化、价值观、教育、技术演进、历史、社会组织、政治结构、法律制度、自然资源等为主要因素的一系列过程。这些因素提供了背景、内容,并设定了经济运作的条件和参数。换句话说,经济领域是相互关联的某些人类行为和交易的社会领域,这些行为和交易并不孤立。

经济主体可以是个人、企业、组织或政府。经济交易发生在两个团体或各方同意所交易的某些商品或服务的价值或价格时,通常以某种货币表示。然而,所谓的货币交易只占经济领域的一小部分。

蔬菜:

蔬菜是人类或其他动物作为食物食用的植物的一部分。原义仍被普遍使用,并被统称为植物,指所有可食用的植物物质,包括花、果、茎、叶、根和种子。该术语的另一种定义在某种程度上是任意应用的,通常是根据烹饪和文化传统。它可能真的不包括一些水果、花卉、坚果和谷物等植物的食物,但包括西红柿和西葫芦等美味水果、西兰花等花卉和豆类等种子。

最初,蔬菜实际上是由狩猎采集者从野外采集而来,并在世界多个地区进行种植,时间可能在公元前 10,000 年至公元前 7,000 年,当时出现了一种新的农业生活方式。起初,当地种植的植物会被种植,但随着时间的推移,贸易从其他地方带来了外来作物,增加了国内品种。如今,大多数蔬菜都在气候允许的情况下在世界各地种植,而农作物可能会在不太适合的地方的受保护环境中种植。中国是最大的蔬菜生产国,农产品的全球贸易让消费者可以买到远方种植的蔬菜。生产规模各不相同,从满足家庭粮食需求的自给农民到拥有大片单一产品作物的农业综合企业。根据相关蔬菜的类型,收获作物后会进行分级、储存、加工和销售。

蔬菜确实可以生吃或煮熟食用,在人体营养中起着重要作用,其脂肪和碳水化合物含量大多较低,但维生素、矿物质和膳食纤维含量较高。许多营养学家鼓励人们多吃水果和蔬菜,通常建议每天食用五份或更多份。

Learn Chinese Through News: Dragon boat festival, Intermediate. Pinyin and English Translation


The Dragon Boat Festival is a traditional Chinese holiday which occurs on the fifth day of the fifth month of the Chinese calendar, which corresponds to late May or June in the Gregorian calendar.

The English language name for the holiday is Dragon Boat Festival, used as the official English translation of the holiday by the People's Republic of China. It is also referred to in some English sources as Double Fifth Festival which alludes to the date as in the original Chinese name.

Duanwu (Chinese: 端午; pinyin: duānwǔ), as the festival is called in Mandarin Chinese, literally means "starting/opening horse", i.e., the first "horse day" (according to the Chinese zodiac/Chinese calendar system) to occur on the month; however, despite the literal meaning being wǔ, "the [day of the] horse in the animal cycle", this character has also been interchangeably construed as wǔ (Chinese: 五; pinyin: wǔ) meaning "five". Hence Duanwu, the "festival on the fifth day of the fifth month".

The Mandarin Chinese name of the festival is "端午節" (simplified Chinese: 端午节; traditional Chinese: 端午節; pinyin: Duānwǔjié; Wade-Giles: Tuan Wu chieh) in Mainland China and Taiwan, and "Tuen Ng Festival" for Hong Kong, Macao, Malaysia and Singapore.

It is pronounced variously in different Chinese dialects. In Cantonese, it is romanized as Tuen1 Ng5 Jit3 in Hong Kong and Tung1 Ng5 Jit3 in Macau. Hence the "Tuen Ng Festival" in Hong Kong Tun Ng (Festividade do Barco-Dragão in Portuguese) in Macao.

The Dragon Boat Festival (simplified Chinese: 端午节; traditional Chinese: 端午節)

Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 端午节
Traditional Chinese 端午節
Literal meaning: "The very mid point of the year Festival"
 
Dragon Boat Festival
Simplified Chinese 龙船节 / 龙舟节
Traditional Chinese 龍船節 / 龍舟節
 
Double Fifth Festival
Fifth Month Festival
Fifth Day Festival
Simplified Chinese 重五节 / 双五节
五月节
五日节
Traditional Chinese 重五節 / 雙五節
五月節
五日節

Dumpling Festival
Simplified Chinese 肉粽节
Traditional Chinese 肉糭節
Literal meaning: Meat Zongzi Festival

Portuguese name: Festividade do Barco-Dragão