Friday, July 29, 2022

China: Two senior Evergrande officials step down after loan-diverting probe 中国:2人のEvergrande高官がローン転用調査の後に辞任


WION on Youtube shows that China Evergrande Group said that its chief executive officer and finance head have resigned after a preliminary probe found their involvement in diverting loans.

The China Evergrande Group is the second largest property developer in China by sales. It is ranked 122nd on the Fortune Global 500. It is incorporated in the Cayman Islands, a British Overseas Territory, and headquartered in the Houhai Financial Center in Nanshan District, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China. It was founded in 1996 by Xu Jiayin. It sells apartments mostly to upper- and middle-income dwellers. In 2018, it became the most valuable real estate company in the whole world.

In 2021, the payments Evergrande had to make on its debt started the 2020-2022 Chinese property sector crisis; Evergrande's total debts were estimated in the hundreds of billions of dollars. This was one of the reasons for a drop in many stock market indices on September 20, 2021. At the end of 2021, the Chinese government was reportedly working to restructure Evergrande in order to resolve the crisis. The group also sought a moratorium on the early repayment option on one of its yuan-denominated bonds from its bondholders on 7 January 2022.

In April 2022, Reuters reported that construction had been started again at many projects and that the company still had liabilities of US$300 billion.

The company's operations and business interests are interesting in the field of real estate.

Evergrande Group owns 565 million square meters (6,080 million square feet) of development land and real estate projects in 22 cities, including Guangzhou, Tianjin, Shenyang, Wuhan, Kunming, Chengdu, Chongqing, Nanjing, Zhengzhou, Luoyang, Changsha, Nanning, Xian, Taiyuan and Guiyang in Mainland China. Notable projects by the company include Ocean Flower Island in Hainan.

Evergrande Real Estate is the second-largest real estate developer in Mainland China. It is known as so-called "Wan Heng Bi" with the other two top three real estate companies: Vanke (Wanke) and Country Garden (Biguiyuan). The firm has developed projects in over 170 cities in Mainland China.

The beautiful Evergrande Plaza (in Chengdu) was certainly designed by Aedas. It was completed in 2014.

The so-called 2020-2022 Chinese property sector crisis is a current financial crisis sparked by the financial difficulties of Evergrande Group and other Chinese property developers, in the wake of new Chinese regulations on these companies' debt limits. The crisis spread beyond Evergrande in 2021, however, and also affected such major important property developers as Kaisa Group, Fantasia Holdings, Sunac, Sinic Holdings, and Modern Land.


YouTubeのWIONは、China Evergrande Groupが、予備調査でローンの流用に関与していることが判明した後、最高経営責任者と財務責任者が辞任したと述べたことを示しています。

China Evergrande Groupは、売上高で中国で2番目に大きい不動産開発業者です。フォーチュングローバル500で122位にランクされています。英国の海外領土であるケイマン諸島に組み込まれ、中国広東省深センの南山区にあるホウハイ金融センターに本社を置いています。 1996年に許家印によって設立されました。それは主に高中所得者にアパートを販売しています。 2018年には、全世界で最も価値のある不動産会社になりました。

2021年、Evergrandeが債務に対して支払わなければならなかった支払いは、2020年から2022年の中国の不動産セクターの危機を引き起こしました。 Evergrandeの総債務は数千億ドルと見積もられました。これが2021年9月20日に多くの株式市場指数が下落した理由の1つでした。2021年の終わりに、中国政府は危機を解決するために恒大集団の再構築に取り組んでいたと伝えられています。同グループはまた、2022年1月7日に、人民元建て債券の1つについて、債券保有者からの早期返済オプションのモラトリアムを求めた。



Evergrande Groupは、広州、天津、神陽、武漢、昆明、成都、重慶、南京、鄭州、羅陽、長沙、南寧、西安を含む22の都市で、5億6500万平方メートル(6,080百万平方フィート)の開発用地および不動産プロジェクトを所有しています。 、中国本土の天津と桂陽。同社の注目すべきプロジェクトには、海南のオーシャンフラワーアイランドがあります。

Evergrande Real Estateは、中国本土で2番目に大きな不動産開発業者です。それはいわゆる「ワンヘンビ」として知られており、他の上位3つの不動産会社であるヴァンケ(ワンケ)とカントリーガーデン(ビギユアン)があります。同社は中国本土の170以上の都市でプロジェクトを開発してきました。

美しい恒大広場(成都)は確かにAedasによって設計されました。 2014年に完成しました。

いわゆる2020-2022中国の不動産セクター危機は、これらの企業の債務制限に関する新しい中国の規制を受けて、EvergrandeGroupや他の中国の不動産開発業者の財政難によって引き起こされた現在の金融危機です。しかし、危機は2021年に恒大集団を超えて広がり、Kaisa Group、Fantasia Holdings、Sunac、Sinic Holdings、ModernLandなどの主要な重要な不動産開発業者にも影響を及ぼしました。

Monday, July 18, 2022

China Releases the most detailed map of the Moon 中国发布最详细的月球地图

Astronomy and Outer Space are interesting studies.

China releases most detailed geological map of the Moon to date. The Geological Lunar Map is impressive.

Scientists in China have really released a new geologic map of the Moon that is the most detailed yet. Created by a team led by the Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, the high quality image was made using data from China’s suite of Chang’e lunar exploration missions as well as information from other international organizations.

The map is to a scale of 1:2,500,000 and includes 12,341 impact craters, 81 impact basins, 17 rock types and 14 types of structures.

The colours on the image represent different periods on the lunar geologic timescale and the map also includes the locations of the Chang’e and Apollo landing sites.

In 2020 the United States Geological Survey Astrogeology Science Centre released a lunar map with a scale of 1:5,000,000. It took into account information from six Apollo-era regional maps along with more recent data from lunar satellite missions.





该地图的比例为 1:2,500,000,包括 12,341 个撞击坑、81 个撞击盆地、17 种岩石类型和 14 种结构类型。



Tuesday, April 5, 2022

International Space Station: Russia threatens to end cooperation 國際空間站:俄羅斯威脅終止合作

Al Jazeera English on Youtube shows that Russia says it will end cooperation with the International Space Station. Head of Russia's space agency says organisation will no longer work with NASA or European partners.

The purpose of this space station is important. The ISS was originally intended to be a laboratory, observatory, and factory while providing transportation, maintenance, and a low Earth orbit staging base for possible future missions to the Moon, Mars, and asteroids. However, not all of the uses envisioned in the initial memorandum of understanding between NASA and Roscosmos have been realised. In the 2010 United States National Space Policy, the ISS was given additional roles of serving commercial, diplomatic, and educational purposes.

Scientific research on the International Space Station is important, indeed. The ISS really provides a platform to conduct scientific research, with power, data, cooling, and crew available to support experiments. Small uncrewed spacecraft can also provide platforms for experiments, especially those involving zero gravity and exposure to space, but space stations offer a long-term environment where important studies can be performed potentially for decades, combined with ready access by human researchers.


Youtube 上的半島電視台英語節目顯示,俄羅斯表示將終止與國際空間站的合作。俄羅斯航天局局長表示,該機構將不再與美國宇航局或歐洲合作夥伴合作。

這個空間站的目的很重要。國際空間站最初的目的是成為一個實驗室、天文台和工廠,同時為未來可能的月球、火星和小行星任務提供運輸、維護和近地軌道中轉基地。然而,並非 NASA 和 Roscosmos 最初的諒解備忘錄中設想的所有用途都已實現。在 2010 年美國國家空間政策中,國際空間站被賦予了服務於商業、外交和教育目的的額外角色。


Russia hands over International Space Station to NASA 俄羅斯將國際空間站移交給美國宇航局

Take a look at these interesting news. Russia or Russian cosmonaut indeed "hands over" space station command as NASA astronaut bids farewell. "People have problems on Earth. On orbit we are one crew," cosmonaut Anton Shkaplerov said.

Anton Shkaplerov handed over command of the International Space Station to NASA astronaut Thomas Marshburn on March 29, 2022.

Russian cosmonaut Anton Shkaplerov indeed handed over "the keys" to the International Space Station (on March 29) as NASA astronaut Mark Vande Hei said goodbye to the international space crew.

After really arriving in October 2021, Shkaplerov is now leaving the station alongside fellow cosmonaut Pyotr Dubrov and NASA astronaut Mark Vande Hei. The trio are set to return to Earth aboard a Russian Soyuz capsule (on March 30).

In other interesting space news: In the fall of 2021, Russia's military conducted an anti-satellite missile test against a defunct Soviet satellite. The test obliterated the satellite, creating thousands of pieces of debris. And it took place so close to the orbit of the space station that the crew had to duck for cover in their docked vehicles. No one was hurt during the event, but it was certainly cause for alarm. 

"Some satellites tried to kill us but we worked together very hard," Shkaplerov joked to Marshburn.

Shkaplerov has served as the commander of Expedition 66 on board the station since Nov. 6 after launching on Oct. 5 alongside Russian film director Klim Shipenko and actor Yulia Pereslid.

Interestingly, the NASA astronaut will be returning to Earth a record-holder. With this exciting mission, Vande Hei will have beaten the record for longest single spaceflight by an American astronaut. Previously, the record was set at 340 days, but Vande Hei will go past that number with a record-breaking 355 days in space.

Sky News Australia definitely shows the highly anticipated change of command ceremony between the United States and Russia on the International Space Station.

Despite mounting tensions between the 2 countries, NASA has repeatedly reaffirmed that it continues to work closely with Russian space agency Roscosmos. It is good for outer space to be as friendly as possible.

The ISS really includes contributions from 15 nations. NASA (United States), Roscosmos (Russia) and the European Space Agency are the major partners of the space station who contribute most of the funding; the other partners are the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency and the Canadian Space Agency.

The International Space Station (ISS) is really a modular space station (habitable artificial satellite) in low Earth orbit. It is a multinational collaborative project involving five participating space agencies: NASA (United States), Roscosmos (Russia), JAXA (Japan), ESA (Europe), and CSA (Canada). The ownership and use of the space station is established by so-called intergovernmental treaties and agreements. The important space station serves as a microgravity and space environment research laboratory in which scientific research is conducted in astrobiology, astronomy, meteorology, physics, and other fields. The ISS is suited for testing the spacecraft systems and equipment required for possible future long-duration important missions to the Moon and Mars.

The ISS programme evolved from the Space Station Freedom, an American proposal which was conceived in 1984 to construct a permanently manned Earth-orbiting station, and the so-called contemporaneous Soviet/Russian Mir-2 proposal from 1976 with similar aims. The ISS is the ninth space station to be inhabited by crews, following the Soviet and later Russian Salyut, Almaz, and Mir stations and the American Skylab. It is the largest so-called artificial object in space and the largest satellite in low Earth orbit, regularly visible to the naked eye from Earth's surface. It maintains an orbit with an average altitude of 400 kilometres (250 mi) by means of reboost manoeuvres using the engines of the Zvezda Service Module or visiting spacecraft. The ISS circles the Earth in roughly 93 minutes, amazingly completing 15.5 orbits per day.

The space station is divided into 2 important sections: the Russian Orbital Segment (ROS) is operated by Russia, while the United States Orbital Segment (USOS) is run by the United States as well as by the other states. The Russian segment includes six modules. The US segment includes ten modules, whose support services are distributed 76.6% for NASA, 12.8% for JAXA, 8.3% for ESA and 2.3% for CSA.

Roscosmos had endorsed the continued operation of ROS through 2024, having previously proposed using elements of the segment to construct a new Russian space station called OPSEK. However, continued cooperation has been rendered uncertain by the 2022 so-called Russian invasion of Ukraine and subsequent international sanctions on Russia.

The ISS consists of pressurized habitation modules, structural trusses, photovoltaic solar arrays, thermal radiators, docking ports, experiment bays and robotic arms. Major ISS modules have been launched by Russian Proton and Soyuz rockets and US Space Shuttles. The space station is serviced by a variety of visiting spacecraft: the Russian Soyuz and Progress, the SpaceX Dragon 2, and the Northrop Grumman Space Systems Cygnus, and formerly the European Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), the Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle, and SpaceX Dragon 1. The Dragon spacecraft allows the return of pressurized cargo to Earth, which is used, for example, to repatriate scientific experiments for further analysis. As of December 2021, 251 astronauts, cosmonauts, and space tourists from 19 different nations have visited the space station, many of them multiple times; this includes 155 Americans, 52 Russians, 11 Japanese, 8 Canadians, 5 Italians, 4 French, 4 Germans, 1 Belgian, 1 Dutch, 1 Swede, 1 Brazilian, 1 Dane, 1 Kazakhstani, 1 Spaniard, 1 Briton, 1 Malaysian, 1 South African, 1 South Korean and 1 Emirati.

The owners of the Space Station are certainly: the United States, Russia, the European Partner, Japan and Canada. They are legally responsible for the respective elements they provide. The European States are being treated as one homogenous entity, called the European Partner on the Space Station.

Sivan announced in 2019 that India will not join the International Space Station programme and will instead build a 20 tonne space station on its own.

Chinese astronauts recently began their 6-month mission on China's first permanent space station, after successfully docking their spacecraft. The astronauts, two men and a woman, were seen floating around the module before speaking via a live-streamed video.

The ISS cost $150 billion. Over its 20+ years in orbit, the international space station costs over $150 billion to develop, making it the most expensive thing ever built. As of now, NASA is confident that the station will remain healthy through 2030, although their last complete analysis looked at the years ending in somewhere 2028.

It seems that some people think that the ISS was deemed to be scrapped more than year ago, because it deteriorated to the extent that it is cheaper to make a new one (let's call it ISS 2) than to upgrade existing one. Material fatigue happens. Solar panels are also less efficient and not enough for current power draw.

NASA has released its updated plans that outline the International Space Station's (ISS) final years leading up to its eventual disposal in 2030, when it will plunge into the Earth's atmosphere and burn up somewhere over the South Pacific Ocean waters.

Why did USA ban China from ISS? It alleged that technical information provided by American commercial satellite manufacturers to China in connection with satellite launches could have been used to improve Chinese so-called intercontinental ballistic missile technology.

The Wolf Amendment is really a law passed by the United States Congress in 2011 that prohibits the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from using government funds to engage in direct, bilateral cooperation with the Chinese government and China-affiliated organizations from its activities without explicit authorization from the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the USA Congress. It has been inserted annually into appropriations bills since then, it seems.

It seems that it is possible that you actually age slower in space than on Earth. Scientists have recently observed for the first time that, on a so-called epigenetic level, astronauts age more slowly during long-term simulated space travel than they would have if their feet had been planted on Planet Earth.

In biology, "epigenetic" is relating to or arising from nongenetic influences on gene expression. For example, "epigenetic carcinogens."


看看這些有趣的新聞。在美國宇航局宇航員告別時,俄羅斯或俄羅斯宇航員確實“交出”空間站指揮權。 “人們在地球上有問題。在軌道上,我們是一個機組人員,”宇航員安東·什卡普列羅夫說。

Anton Shkaplerov 於 2022 年 3 月 29 日將國際空間站的指揮權移交給了 NASA 宇航員 Thomas Marshburn。

俄羅斯宇航員安東·什卡普勒羅夫(Anton Shkaplerov)確實將“鑰匙”交給了國際空間站(3 月 29 日),美國宇航局宇航員馬克·范德·黑(Mark Vande Hei)向國際航天員道別。

在真正於 2021 年 10 月抵達後,Shkaplerov 現在與同伴宇航員 Pyotr Dubrov 和 NASA 宇航員 Mark Vande Hei 一起離開空間站。三人將乘坐俄羅斯聯盟號太空艙返回地球(3 月 30 日)。

在其他有趣的太空新聞中:2021 年秋天,俄羅斯軍方對一顆已報廢的蘇聯衛星進行了反衛星導彈試驗。測試摧毀了衛星,產生了數千塊碎片。它發生在離空間站軌道如此之近的地方,以至於機組人員不得不躲在停靠的車輛中尋求掩護。事件中沒有人受傷,但這無疑是引起恐慌的原因。

“一些衛星試圖殺死我們,但我們非常努力地合作,”Shkaplerov 對 Marshburn 開玩笑說。

自 10 月 5 日與俄羅斯電影導演 Klim Shipenko 和演員 Yulia Pereslid 一起發射後,Shkaplerov 自 11 月 6 日以來一直擔任該站的第 66 遠征隊指揮官。

有趣的是,美國宇航局的宇航員將以創紀錄的身份返回地球。通過這項激動人心的任務,范德黑將打破美國宇航員最長單次太空飛行的記錄。此前,該記錄被設定為 340 天,但 Vande Hei 將以破紀錄的 355 天在太空中超越這個數字。


儘管兩國之間的緊張局勢日益加劇,但美國宇航局一再重申它將繼續與俄羅斯航天局 Roscosmos 密切合作。外太空盡可能友好是好事。

國際空間站確實包括來自 15 個國家的貢獻。 NASA(美國)、Roscosmos(俄羅斯)和歐洲航天局是空間站的主要合作夥伴,提供了大部分資金;其他合作夥伴是日本宇宙航空研究開發機構和加拿大航天局。

國際空間站(ISS)實際上是低地球軌道上的模塊化空間站(可居住人造衛星)。這是一個多國合作項目,涉及五個參與的航天機構:NASA(美國)、Roscosmos(俄羅斯)、JAXA(日本)、ESA(歐洲)和 CSA(加拿大)。空間站的所有權和使用權是由所謂的政府間條約和協議確定的。重要的空間站作為微重力和空間環境研究實驗室,開展天體生物學、天文學、氣象學、物理學等領域的科學研究。國際空間站適用於測試未來可能的月球和火星長期重要任務所需的航天器系統和設備。

國際空間站計劃從自由空間站發展而來,這是美國在 1984 年提出的建造永久載人地球軌道站的提議,以及 1976 年提出的所謂同時期的蘇聯/俄羅斯 Mir-2 計劃,其目標相似。國際空間站是繼蘇聯和後來的俄羅斯禮炮、阿爾瑪茲和和平號空間站以及美國天空實驗室之後的第九個空間站。它是太空中最大的所謂人造物體,也是近地軌道上最大的衛星,通常從地球表面肉眼可見。它通過使用 Zvezda 服務艙的引擎或訪問航天器的重新推進機動來維持平均高度為 400 公里(250 英里)的軌道。國際空間站在大約 93 分鐘內繞地球一圈,驚人地每天完成 15.5 圈。

空間站分為兩個重要部分:俄羅斯軌道段(ROS)由俄羅斯運營,而美國軌道段(USOS)由美國和其他國家運營。俄羅斯部分包括六個模塊。美國部分包括十個模塊,其支持服務分佈在 76.6% 的 NASA、12.8% 的 JAXA、8.3% 的 ESA 和 2.3% 的 CSA。

Roscosmos 已批准 ROS 在 2024 年之前繼續運行,此前曾提議使用該部分的元素來建造一個名為 OPSEK 的新俄羅斯空間站。然而,由於 2022 年所謂的俄羅斯入侵烏克蘭以及隨後對俄羅斯的國際制裁,繼續合作變得不確定。

國際空間站由加壓居住模塊、結構桁架、光伏太陽能陣列、熱輻射器、對接端口、實驗艙和機械臂組成。主要的國際空間站模塊已由俄羅斯質子和聯盟號火箭以及美國航天飛機發射。空間站由各種來訪的航天器提供服務:俄羅斯聯盟號和進步號、SpaceX 龍 2 號和諾斯羅普·格魯曼空間系統天鵝座,以及以前的歐洲自動轉運車 (ATV)、日本 H-II 轉運車、和 SpaceX 龍 1。龍飛船允許將加壓貨物送回地球,例如,用於遣返科學實驗以進行進一步分析。截至 2021 年 12 月,來自 19 個不同國家的 251 名宇航員、宇航員和太空遊客訪問了空間站,其中許多人多次訪問;其中包括 155 名美國人、52 名俄羅斯人、11 名日本人、8 名加拿大人、5 名意大利人、4 名法國人、4 名德國人、1 名比利時人、1 名荷蘭人、1 名瑞典人、1 名巴西人、1 名丹麥人、1 名哈薩克斯坦人、1 名西班牙人、1 名英國人、1 名馬來西亞人、 1 名南非人、1 名韓國人和 1 名阿聯酋人。


西文在 2019 年宣布,印度不會加入國際空間站計劃,而是將自行建造一個 20 噸的空間站。

中國宇航員在成功對接航天器後,最近開始了他們在中國第一個永久性空間站上為期 6 個月的任務。在通過直播視頻講話之前,可以看到兩名男性和一名女性宇航員漂浮在模塊周圍。

國際空間站耗資 1500 億美元。在其 20 多年的軌道運行中,國際空間站的開發成本超過 1500 億美元,使其成為有史以來最昂貴的東西。截至目前,美國宇航局有信心該空間站將在 2030 年之前保持健康,儘管他們最後一次完整的分析著眼於 2028 年某個地方結束的年份。

似乎有些人認為國際空間站在一年多以前就被視為報廢了,因為它已經惡化到製造一個新的(我們稱之為 ISS 2)比升級現有的更便宜的程度。發生材料疲勞。太陽能電池板的效率也較低,不足以滿足當前的電力消耗。

美國宇航局發布了更新計劃,概述了國際空間站 (ISS) 在 2030 年最終處置前的最後幾年,屆時它將進入地球大氣層並在南太平洋水域的某處燃燒。


沃爾夫修正案實際上是美國國會於 2011 年通過的一項法律,禁止美國國家航空航天局(NASA)利用政府資金與中國政府和中國附屬組織進行直接的雙邊合作。未經聯邦調查局和美國國會明確授權的活動。從那時起,它似乎每年都被納入撥款法案。



Interesting Translations 有趣的翻譯

Outer Space 外太空
Space Station 空間站
ISS 國際空間站

Sunday, April 3, 2022

Can China and India find a path to resolve their border dispute 中印能否找到解決邊界爭端的途徑

See the discussion about whether China and India can find a path to resolve their border dispute. DW News has the story.

DW News on Youtube shows that Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi has made a surprise visit to India, two years after a deadly clash between troops from both countries on their disputed border. Wang Yi met Indian Foreign Minister S Jaishankar and National Security Advisor Ajit Doval. The visit comes in the backdrop of a slump in bilateral relations. A slump caused by a deadly clash between troops of both nations. In May 2020, India accused China of breaking border agreements and intruding into India’s claimed territory in the northern Ladakh region. Soldiers remain deployed along the border and attempts to disengage haven’t yet been successful.


請參閱有關中印能否找到解決邊界爭端的途徑的討論。 德國之聲新聞有故事。

Youtube 上的德國之聲新聞顯示,在兩國軍隊在有爭議的邊界發生致命衝突兩年後,中國外交部長王毅突然訪問了印度。 王毅會見了印度外長賈尚卡爾和國家安全顧問多瓦爾。 這次訪問是在雙邊關係低迷的背景下進行的。 兩國軍隊之間的致命衝突造成的經濟衰退。 2020年5月,印度指責中國違反邊界協議,侵入印度在拉達克北部地區聲稱擁有主權的領土。 士兵仍在邊境部署,脫離接觸的嘗試尚未成功。

Saturday, April 2, 2022

Solomon Islands PM defends controversial security agreement with China 所羅門群島總理為與中國有爭議的安全協議辯護

"ABC News (Australia)" Channel on Youtube shows that the prime minister of Solomon Islands has defended his country's pursuit of a controversial security agreement with China.

It seems that the deal has sparked fears that Beijing could set up a permanent military presence in the Solomons.

Solomon Islands is really a sovereign country consisting of 6 major islands and over 900 smaller islands in Oceania, to the east of Papua New Guinea and northwest of Vanuatu. It has a land area of 28,400 square kilometres (11,000 sq mi), and a population of 652,858. Its capital, Honiara, is located on the largest island, Guadalcanal. The Solomon Islands Country takes its name from the Solomon Islands archipelago, which is a collection of Melanesian islands that also includes the North Solomon Islands (a part of Papua New Guinea), but excludes outlying islands, such as the Santa Cruz Islands and Rennell and so-called Bellona.

The important islands have been settled since at least some time between 30,000 and 28,800 BCE, with later waves of migrants, notably the Lapita people, mixing and producing the modern indigenous Solomon Islanders population. In 1568, the Spanish navigator Álvaro de Mendaña was the first European to visit them, naming them the Islas Salomón. Mendaña returned decades later, in 1595, and another Spanish expedition, led by Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, visited the Solomons in 1606. Britain certainly defined its area of interest in the Solomon Islands archipelago in June 1893, when Captain Gibson, R.N., of HMS Curacoa, declared the southern Solomon Islands a British protectorate. During World War II, the Solomon Islands campaign (1942-1945) saw indeed fierce fighting between the United States, Commonwealth forces and the Empire of Japan, including the Battle of Guadalcanal.

The official name of the then-British administration was changed from the British Solomon Islands Protectorate to The Solomon Islands in 1975, and self-government was achieved the following year. Important independence was obtained, and the name changed to just "Solomon Islands" (without the definite article), in 1978. At independence, Solomon Islands became a constitutional monarchy. The Queen of Solomon Islands is Elizabeth II, really represented by the Governor-General.




所羅門群島實際上是一個主權國家,由大洋洲的 6 個主要島嶼和 900 多個小島組成,位於巴布亞新幾內亞以東和瓦努阿圖西北部。它的土地面積為 28,400 平方公里(11,000 平方英里),人口為 652,858 人。其首府霍尼亞拉位於最大的島嶼瓜達爾卡納爾島。所羅門群島國家得名於所羅門群島群島,該群島是美拉尼西亞群島的集合,其中還包括北所羅門群島(巴布亞新幾內亞的一部分),但不包括外圍島嶼,如聖克魯斯群島和倫內爾和所謂的貝羅納。

這些重要的島嶼至少在公元前 30,000 到 28,800 年之間的一段時間內就已經有人定居,後來的移民浪潮,尤其是拉皮塔人,混合併產生了現代土著所羅門群島人口。 1568 年,西班牙航海家阿爾瓦羅·德·門達尼亞 (Álvaro de Mendaña) 是第一個造訪它們的歐洲人,將它們命名為所羅門島。幾十年後的 1595 年,門達納返回,由葡萄牙航海家佩德羅·費爾南德斯·德·奎羅斯率領的另一支西班牙探險隊於 1606 年訪問了所羅門群島。1893 年 6 月,英國確定了其對所羅門群島感興趣的區域,當時註冊護士吉布森船長, HMS Curacoa 號宣布所羅門群島南部為英國保護國。在第二次世界大戰期間,所羅門群島戰役(1942-1945)確實見證了美國、英聯邦軍隊和日本帝國之間的激烈戰鬥,包括瓜達爾卡納爾島戰役。


The Myth of the Chinese Debt Trap in Africa 中國債務陷阱在非洲的神話

"Bloomberg Quicktake: Originals" on Youtube shows that over the past two decades, China has built large infrastructure projects in almost every country in Africa, making Western powers uncomfortable amid wider concerns about Beijing’s investments across the continent. However, a deeper look shows that accusations of so-called debt trap diplomacy turn out to be unfounded.

China is investing into Africa. In particular, China is investing heavily in the so-called African services sector. Investment in subsectors such as scientific research and technology services, transport, warehousing, and postal services more than doubled in 2020.

For Ethiopia, Chinese finance provides critical support for the government's legitimacy, as electricity, transport, and employment opportunities continue to indeed expand, stimulating economic growth and helping promote exports to other countries.

For African countries, the top 10 recipients of loans from China (accounting for 68 percent of the total) include varied countries such as Angola, Ethiopia, Zambia, and Cameroon. The top 10 recipients of FDI - such as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and South Africa - accounted for 63 percent of total Chinese FDI stock in Africa.

China invested most of its money in USA. The United States is the top destination in the world for Chinese FDI, drawing in $183.2 billion, or 15 percent of China's total so-called outflows, between 2005 and 2019.


Youtube 上的“Bloomberg Quicktake: Originals”顯示,在過去的二十年裡,中國在非洲幾乎每個國家都建設了大型基礎設施項目,這讓西方大國在對北京在整個非洲大陸的投資的廣泛擔憂中感到不安。然而,更深入的研究表明,所謂的債務陷阱外交指控是毫無根據的。

中國正在非洲投資。特別是,中國正在大力投資所謂的非洲服務業。 2020年,對科研和技術服務、運輸、倉儲和郵政服務等子行業的投資翻了一番多。


在非洲國家中,中國貸款的前10位接受國(佔總數的68%)包括安哥拉、埃塞俄比亞、贊比亞和喀麥隆等不同國家。剛果民主共和國(DRC)和南非等前 10 大外國直接投資接受國占中國在非洲外國直接投資存量的 63%。

中國將大部分資金投資於美國。美國是中國 FDI 的全球最大目的地,2005 年至 2019 年間吸引了 1832 億美元,佔中國所謂的對外直接投資總額的 15%。