Tuesday, April 5, 2022

Russia hands over International Space Station to NASA 俄羅斯將國際空間站移交給美國宇航局

Take a look at these interesting news. Russia or Russian cosmonaut indeed "hands over" space station command as NASA astronaut bids farewell. "People have problems on Earth. On orbit we are one crew," cosmonaut Anton Shkaplerov said.

Anton Shkaplerov handed over command of the International Space Station to NASA astronaut Thomas Marshburn on March 29, 2022.

Russian cosmonaut Anton Shkaplerov indeed handed over "the keys" to the International Space Station (on March 29) as NASA astronaut Mark Vande Hei said goodbye to the international space crew.

After really arriving in October 2021, Shkaplerov is now leaving the station alongside fellow cosmonaut Pyotr Dubrov and NASA astronaut Mark Vande Hei. The trio are set to return to Earth aboard a Russian Soyuz capsule (on March 30).

In other interesting space news: In the fall of 2021, Russia's military conducted an anti-satellite missile test against a defunct Soviet satellite. The test obliterated the satellite, creating thousands of pieces of debris. And it took place so close to the orbit of the space station that the crew had to duck for cover in their docked vehicles. No one was hurt during the event, but it was certainly cause for alarm. 

"Some satellites tried to kill us but we worked together very hard," Shkaplerov joked to Marshburn.

Shkaplerov has served as the commander of Expedition 66 on board the station since Nov. 6 after launching on Oct. 5 alongside Russian film director Klim Shipenko and actor Yulia Pereslid.

Interestingly, the NASA astronaut will be returning to Earth a record-holder. With this exciting mission, Vande Hei will have beaten the record for longest single spaceflight by an American astronaut. Previously, the record was set at 340 days, but Vande Hei will go past that number with a record-breaking 355 days in space.

Sky News Australia definitely shows the highly anticipated change of command ceremony between the United States and Russia on the International Space Station.

Despite mounting tensions between the 2 countries, NASA has repeatedly reaffirmed that it continues to work closely with Russian space agency Roscosmos. It is good for outer space to be as friendly as possible.

The ISS really includes contributions from 15 nations. NASA (United States), Roscosmos (Russia) and the European Space Agency are the major partners of the space station who contribute most of the funding; the other partners are the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency and the Canadian Space Agency.

The International Space Station (ISS) is really a modular space station (habitable artificial satellite) in low Earth orbit. It is a multinational collaborative project involving five participating space agencies: NASA (United States), Roscosmos (Russia), JAXA (Japan), ESA (Europe), and CSA (Canada). The ownership and use of the space station is established by so-called intergovernmental treaties and agreements. The important space station serves as a microgravity and space environment research laboratory in which scientific research is conducted in astrobiology, astronomy, meteorology, physics, and other fields. The ISS is suited for testing the spacecraft systems and equipment required for possible future long-duration important missions to the Moon and Mars.

The ISS programme evolved from the Space Station Freedom, an American proposal which was conceived in 1984 to construct a permanently manned Earth-orbiting station, and the so-called contemporaneous Soviet/Russian Mir-2 proposal from 1976 with similar aims. The ISS is the ninth space station to be inhabited by crews, following the Soviet and later Russian Salyut, Almaz, and Mir stations and the American Skylab. It is the largest so-called artificial object in space and the largest satellite in low Earth orbit, regularly visible to the naked eye from Earth's surface. It maintains an orbit with an average altitude of 400 kilometres (250 mi) by means of reboost manoeuvres using the engines of the Zvezda Service Module or visiting spacecraft. The ISS circles the Earth in roughly 93 minutes, amazingly completing 15.5 orbits per day.

The space station is divided into 2 important sections: the Russian Orbital Segment (ROS) is operated by Russia, while the United States Orbital Segment (USOS) is run by the United States as well as by the other states. The Russian segment includes six modules. The US segment includes ten modules, whose support services are distributed 76.6% for NASA, 12.8% for JAXA, 8.3% for ESA and 2.3% for CSA.

Roscosmos had endorsed the continued operation of ROS through 2024, having previously proposed using elements of the segment to construct a new Russian space station called OPSEK. However, continued cooperation has been rendered uncertain by the 2022 so-called Russian invasion of Ukraine and subsequent international sanctions on Russia.

The ISS consists of pressurized habitation modules, structural trusses, photovoltaic solar arrays, thermal radiators, docking ports, experiment bays and robotic arms. Major ISS modules have been launched by Russian Proton and Soyuz rockets and US Space Shuttles. The space station is serviced by a variety of visiting spacecraft: the Russian Soyuz and Progress, the SpaceX Dragon 2, and the Northrop Grumman Space Systems Cygnus, and formerly the European Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), the Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle, and SpaceX Dragon 1. The Dragon spacecraft allows the return of pressurized cargo to Earth, which is used, for example, to repatriate scientific experiments for further analysis. As of December 2021, 251 astronauts, cosmonauts, and space tourists from 19 different nations have visited the space station, many of them multiple times; this includes 155 Americans, 52 Russians, 11 Japanese, 8 Canadians, 5 Italians, 4 French, 4 Germans, 1 Belgian, 1 Dutch, 1 Swede, 1 Brazilian, 1 Dane, 1 Kazakhstani, 1 Spaniard, 1 Briton, 1 Malaysian, 1 South African, 1 South Korean and 1 Emirati.

The owners of the Space Station are certainly: the United States, Russia, the European Partner, Japan and Canada. They are legally responsible for the respective elements they provide. The European States are being treated as one homogenous entity, called the European Partner on the Space Station.

Sivan announced in 2019 that India will not join the International Space Station programme and will instead build a 20 tonne space station on its own.

Chinese astronauts recently began their 6-month mission on China's first permanent space station, after successfully docking their spacecraft. The astronauts, two men and a woman, were seen floating around the module before speaking via a live-streamed video.

The ISS cost $150 billion. Over its 20+ years in orbit, the international space station costs over $150 billion to develop, making it the most expensive thing ever built. As of now, NASA is confident that the station will remain healthy through 2030, although their last complete analysis looked at the years ending in somewhere 2028.

It seems that some people think that the ISS was deemed to be scrapped more than year ago, because it deteriorated to the extent that it is cheaper to make a new one (let's call it ISS 2) than to upgrade existing one. Material fatigue happens. Solar panels are also less efficient and not enough for current power draw.

NASA has released its updated plans that outline the International Space Station's (ISS) final years leading up to its eventual disposal in 2030, when it will plunge into the Earth's atmosphere and burn up somewhere over the South Pacific Ocean waters.

Why did USA ban China from ISS? It alleged that technical information provided by American commercial satellite manufacturers to China in connection with satellite launches could have been used to improve Chinese so-called intercontinental ballistic missile technology.

The Wolf Amendment is really a law passed by the United States Congress in 2011 that prohibits the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from using government funds to engage in direct, bilateral cooperation with the Chinese government and China-affiliated organizations from its activities without explicit authorization from the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the USA Congress. It has been inserted annually into appropriations bills since then, it seems.

It seems that it is possible that you actually age slower in space than on Earth. Scientists have recently observed for the first time that, on a so-called epigenetic level, astronauts age more slowly during long-term simulated space travel than they would have if their feet had been planted on Planet Earth.

In biology, "epigenetic" is relating to or arising from nongenetic influences on gene expression. For example, "epigenetic carcinogens."


看看這些有趣的新聞。在美國宇航局宇航員告別時,俄羅斯或俄羅斯宇航員確實“交出”空間站指揮權。 “人們在地球上有問題。在軌道上,我們是一個機組人員,”宇航員安東·什卡普列羅夫說。

Anton Shkaplerov 於 2022 年 3 月 29 日將國際空間站的指揮權移交給了 NASA 宇航員 Thomas Marshburn。

俄羅斯宇航員安東·什卡普勒羅夫(Anton Shkaplerov)確實將“鑰匙”交給了國際空間站(3 月 29 日),美國宇航局宇航員馬克·范德·黑(Mark Vande Hei)向國際航天員道別。

在真正於 2021 年 10 月抵達後,Shkaplerov 現在與同伴宇航員 Pyotr Dubrov 和 NASA 宇航員 Mark Vande Hei 一起離開空間站。三人將乘坐俄羅斯聯盟號太空艙返回地球(3 月 30 日)。

在其他有趣的太空新聞中:2021 年秋天,俄羅斯軍方對一顆已報廢的蘇聯衛星進行了反衛星導彈試驗。測試摧毀了衛星,產生了數千塊碎片。它發生在離空間站軌道如此之近的地方,以至於機組人員不得不躲在停靠的車輛中尋求掩護。事件中沒有人受傷,但這無疑是引起恐慌的原因。

“一些衛星試圖殺死我們,但我們非常努力地合作,”Shkaplerov 對 Marshburn 開玩笑說。

自 10 月 5 日與俄羅斯電影導演 Klim Shipenko 和演員 Yulia Pereslid 一起發射後,Shkaplerov 自 11 月 6 日以來一直擔任該站的第 66 遠征隊指揮官。

有趣的是,美國宇航局的宇航員將以創紀錄的身份返回地球。通過這項激動人心的任務,范德黑將打破美國宇航員最長單次太空飛行的記錄。此前,該記錄被設定為 340 天,但 Vande Hei 將以破紀錄的 355 天在太空中超越這個數字。


儘管兩國之間的緊張局勢日益加劇,但美國宇航局一再重申它將繼續與俄羅斯航天局 Roscosmos 密切合作。外太空盡可能友好是好事。

國際空間站確實包括來自 15 個國家的貢獻。 NASA(美國)、Roscosmos(俄羅斯)和歐洲航天局是空間站的主要合作夥伴,提供了大部分資金;其他合作夥伴是日本宇宙航空研究開發機構和加拿大航天局。

國際空間站(ISS)實際上是低地球軌道上的模塊化空間站(可居住人造衛星)。這是一個多國合作項目,涉及五個參與的航天機構:NASA(美國)、Roscosmos(俄羅斯)、JAXA(日本)、ESA(歐洲)和 CSA(加拿大)。空間站的所有權和使用權是由所謂的政府間條約和協議確定的。重要的空間站作為微重力和空間環境研究實驗室,開展天體生物學、天文學、氣象學、物理學等領域的科學研究。國際空間站適用於測試未來可能的月球和火星長期重要任務所需的航天器系統和設備。

國際空間站計劃從自由空間站發展而來,這是美國在 1984 年提出的建造永久載人地球軌道站的提議,以及 1976 年提出的所謂同時期的蘇聯/俄羅斯 Mir-2 計劃,其目標相似。國際空間站是繼蘇聯和後來的俄羅斯禮炮、阿爾瑪茲和和平號空間站以及美國天空實驗室之後的第九個空間站。它是太空中最大的所謂人造物體,也是近地軌道上最大的衛星,通常從地球表面肉眼可見。它通過使用 Zvezda 服務艙的引擎或訪問航天器的重新推進機動來維持平均高度為 400 公里(250 英里)的軌道。國際空間站在大約 93 分鐘內繞地球一圈,驚人地每天完成 15.5 圈。

空間站分為兩個重要部分:俄羅斯軌道段(ROS)由俄羅斯運營,而美國軌道段(USOS)由美國和其他國家運營。俄羅斯部分包括六個模塊。美國部分包括十個模塊,其支持服務分佈在 76.6% 的 NASA、12.8% 的 JAXA、8.3% 的 ESA 和 2.3% 的 CSA。

Roscosmos 已批准 ROS 在 2024 年之前繼續運行,此前曾提議使用該部分的元素來建造一個名為 OPSEK 的新俄羅斯空間站。然而,由於 2022 年所謂的俄羅斯入侵烏克蘭以及隨後對俄羅斯的國際制裁,繼續合作變得不確定。

國際空間站由加壓居住模塊、結構桁架、光伏太陽能陣列、熱輻射器、對接端口、實驗艙和機械臂組成。主要的國際空間站模塊已由俄羅斯質子和聯盟號火箭以及美國航天飛機發射。空間站由各種來訪的航天器提供服務:俄羅斯聯盟號和進步號、SpaceX 龍 2 號和諾斯羅普·格魯曼空間系統天鵝座,以及以前的歐洲自動轉運車 (ATV)、日本 H-II 轉運車、和 SpaceX 龍 1。龍飛船允許將加壓貨物送回地球,例如,用於遣返科學實驗以進行進一步分析。截至 2021 年 12 月,來自 19 個不同國家的 251 名宇航員、宇航員和太空遊客訪問了空間站,其中許多人多次訪問;其中包括 155 名美國人、52 名俄羅斯人、11 名日本人、8 名加拿大人、5 名意大利人、4 名法國人、4 名德國人、1 名比利時人、1 名荷蘭人、1 名瑞典人、1 名巴西人、1 名丹麥人、1 名哈薩克斯坦人、1 名西班牙人、1 名英國人、1 名馬來西亞人、 1 名南非人、1 名韓國人和 1 名阿聯酋人。


西文在 2019 年宣布,印度不會加入國際空間站計劃,而是將自行建造一個 20 噸的空間站。

中國宇航員在成功對接航天器後,最近開始了他們在中國第一個永久性空間站上為期 6 個月的任務。在通過直播視頻講話之前,可以看到兩名男性和一名女性宇航員漂浮在模塊周圍。

國際空間站耗資 1500 億美元。在其 20 多年的軌道運行中,國際空間站的開發成本超過 1500 億美元,使其成為有史以來最昂貴的東西。截至目前,美國宇航局有信心該空間站將在 2030 年之前保持健康,儘管他們最後一次完整的分析著眼於 2028 年某個地方結束的年份。

似乎有些人認為國際空間站在一年多以前就被視為報廢了,因為它已經惡化到製造一個新的(我們稱之為 ISS 2)比升級現有的更便宜的程度。發生材料疲勞。太陽能電池板的效率也較低,不足以滿足當前的電力消耗。

美國宇航局發布了更新計劃,概述了國際空間站 (ISS) 在 2030 年最終處置前的最後幾年,屆時它將進入地球大氣層並在南太平洋水域的某處燃燒。


沃爾夫修正案實際上是美國國會於 2011 年通過的一項法律,禁止美國國家航空航天局(NASA)利用政府資金與中國政府和中國附屬組織進行直接的雙邊合作。未經聯邦調查局和美國國會明確授權的活動。從那時起,它似乎每年都被納入撥款法案。



Interesting Translations 有趣的翻譯

Outer Space 外太空
Space Station 空間站
ISS 國際空間站

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