Wednesday, October 13, 2021

Some countries in Antarctica 南極洲的一些國家

Some countries in Antarctica 南極洲的一些國家

Antarctica is sure Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14,200,000 square kilometres (5,500,000 square miles), it is the fifth-largest continent and nearly twice the size of Australia. It is by far the least populated continent, with around 5,000 people in the summer and around 1,000 in the winter. About 98% of Antarctica is really covered by ice that averages 1.9 km (1.2 mi; 6,200 ft) in thickness, which extends to all but the McMurdo Dry Valleys and the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic Peninsula.

Antarctica, on average, is the coldest, driest, and windiest continent, and has the highest average elevation of all the continents. Most of Antarctica is a polar desert, with annual precipitation of 200 mm (8 in) along the coast and far less inland; yet 80% of the world freshwater reserves are stored there, enough to raise global sea levels by about 60 metres (200 ft) if all of it were to melt. The temperature in Antarctica has dropped to −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F) (or even −94.7 °C or −138.5 °F, as measured from space), though the average for the third quarter (the coldest part of the year) is −63 °C (−81 °F). Organisms native to Antarctica include many types of algae, bacteria, fungi, plants, protista, and certain animals, such as mites, nematodes (roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda, also called Nemathelminthes), penguins, seals and tardigrades. Vegetation, where it occurs, is tundra.

南極洲無疑是地球最南端的大陸。它包含地理南極,位於南半球的南極地區,幾乎完全位於南極圈以南,並被南大洋包圍。它佔地 14,200,000 平方公里(5,500,000 平方英里),是第五大洲,幾乎是澳大利亞的兩倍。它是迄今為止人口最少的大陸,夏季約有 5,000 人,冬季約有 1,000 人。南極洲大約 98% 的地區真的被冰層覆蓋,冰層平均厚度為 1.9 公里(1.2 英里;6,200 英尺),冰層延伸到除麥克默多乾穀和南極半島最北端以外的所有地區。

平均而言,南極洲是最冷、最乾燥、風最大的大陸,也是所有大陸中平均海拔最高的大陸。南極洲大部分地區是極地沙漠,沿海地區年降水量 200 毫米(8 英寸),內陸少得多;然而,世界上 80% 的淡水儲備都儲存在那裡,如果全部融化,這足以使全球海平面上升約 60 米(200 英尺)。南極洲的溫度已降至 -89.2 °C (-128.6 °F)(甚至從太空測量的 -94.7 °C 或 -138.5 °F),儘管第三季度(一年中最冷的部分)的平均值) 是 -63 °C (-81 °F)。南極洲原生生物包括多種藻類、細菌、真菌、植物、原生生物和某些動物,例如蟎類、線蟲(線蟲構成線蟲門,也稱為線蟲)、企鵝、海豹和緩步動物。植被出現的地方是苔原。

Adélie Land (France)
British Antarctic Territory (United Kingdom)
Ross Dependency (New Zealand)
Peter I Island (Norway)
Queen Maud Land (Norway)
Chilean Antarctic Territory
Marie Byrd Land (Unclaimed territory)


Brazil has a designated "zone of interest" that is not an actual claim.
Peru has formally reserved its right to make a claim.
Russia has inherited the Soviet Union's right to claim territory under the original Antarctic Treaty.
South Africa has formally reserved its right to make a claim.
United States reserved its right to make a claim in the original Antarctic Treaty.


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